Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

31-10-2020 | Original Article

The Effects of Emotional Working Memory Training on Worry Symptoms and Error-Related Negativity of Individuals with High Trait Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study

Auteurs: Salahadin Lotfi, Richard T. Ward, Maryam Ayazi, Ken P. Bennett, Christine L. Larson, Han-Joo Lee

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 5/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Background

Trait anxiety is characterized by impaired gating of threat from working memory (WM), allowing unnecessary maintenance of anxious cognitions. Improving filtering efficiency of threatening information through computerized WM training might reduce intrusive, worrisome thoughts.

Methods

We randomized high-trait anxious individuals to 9 sessions of high-potency n-back (n = 19) or low-potency 1-back (n = 18) training to examine their effects on various neurocognitive indices of WM functioning and emotional symptoms.

Results

Following the interventions, multilevel modeling analyses revealed both training conditions resulted in significant improvements in attentional (Flanker), WM capacity (operation and spatial span tasks), and WM filtering efficiency (change detection task) measures, and increased N2 amplitudes. However, the high-potency training produced more favorable results at post-training, indexed by larger ERN amplitudes. We also observed significant reductions in trait anxiety and worry symptoms for the high-potency training following the intervention, although, low-potency training caught up at follow-up with comparably reduced symptoms.

Conclusions

These results show that emotional WM training can improve neurocognitive processes of attention and WM as well as symptoms of worrying. Overall, this study encourages the development of a standalone or adjunctive cognitive intervention focused on WM for vulnerable populations with high trait anxiety or worry symptoms.
Voetnoten
1
Over the course of data collection, we identified that event triggers within the change detection task were misplaced due to technical issues of the software, which invalidated part of the ERP data from this task. Thus, we presented only behavioral data from the change detection task. However, it should be noted that behavioral data are intact and their pattern (i.e., the accuracy across different target and distracter conditions) is consistent with existing data (Stout et al 2013, 2015).
 
2
It appears that WMT produced a negligible change in the level of trait anxiety. Trait anxiety is a broader and more dispositional vulnerability to experience anxiety symptoms across a wide range of contexts (Eysenck 1987; Girdron 2013). Thus, it is possible that trait anxiety may not be directly relevant as an immediate training outcome for short-term WMT, and it requires more intensive training (Sari et al. 2016).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Beck, J. G., Stanley, M. A., & Zebb, B. J. (1995). Psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 1(1), 33–42. Beck, J. G., Stanley, M. A., & Zebb, B. J. (1995). Psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in older adults. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 1(1), 33–42.
go back to reference Brauer, M., & Curtin, J. J. (2018). Linear mixed-effects models and the analysis of nonindependent data: A unified framework to analyze categorical and continuous independent variables that vary within-subjects and/or within-items. Psychological Methods, 23(3), 389. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000159CrossRefPubMed Brauer, M., & Curtin, J. J. (2018). Linear mixed-effects models and the analysis of nonindependent data: A unified framework to analyze categorical and continuous independent variables that vary within-subjects and/or within-items. Psychological Methods, 23(3), 389. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1037/​met0000159CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2012). Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2012). Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Covey, T. J., Shucard, J. L., Benedict, R. H., Weinstock-Guttman, B., & Shucard, D. W. (2018). Improved cognitive performance and event-related potential changes following working memory training in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal: Experimental, Translational and Clinical, 4(1), 2055217317747626. https://doi.org/10.1177/2055217317747626CrossRef Covey, T. J., Shucard, J. L., Benedict, R. H., Weinstock-Guttman, B., & Shucard, D. W. (2018). Improved cognitive performance and event-related potential changes following working memory training in patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal: Experimental, Translational and Clinical, 4(1), 2055217317747626. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1177/​2055217317747626​CrossRef
go back to reference Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists. Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1976). Pictures of facial affect. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists.
go back to reference Eysenck, M. W. (1987). Trait theories of anxiety. In J. Strelau & H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality dimensions and arousal. Perspectives on individual differences. Boston: Springer. Eysenck, M. W. (1987). Trait theories of anxiety. In J. Strelau & H. J. Eysenck (Eds.), Personality dimensions and arousal. Perspectives on individual differences. Boston: Springer.
go back to reference Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70. Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.
go back to reference Kvaal, K., Ulstein, I., Nordhus, I. H., & Engedal, K. (2005). The Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI): The state scale in detecting mental disorders in geriatric patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A Journal of the Psychiatry of Late Life and Allied Sciences, 20(7), 629–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.1330CrossRef Kvaal, K., Ulstein, I., Nordhus, I. H., & Engedal, K. (2005). The Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI): The state scale in detecting mental disorders in geriatric patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: A Journal of the Psychiatry of Late Life and Allied Sciences, 20(7), 629–634. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1002/​gps.​1330CrossRef
go back to reference Lee, H.-J., & Lotfi, S. (2017). Mental health disorder. In A. E. Wenzel (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of abnormal clinical psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication. Lee, H.-J., & Lotfi, S. (2017). Mental health disorder. In A. E. Wenzel (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of abnormal clinical psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
go back to reference Lépine, J. P. (2002). The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: Prevalence and societal costs. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 4–8.CrossRef Lépine, J. P. (2002). The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: Prevalence and societal costs. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 4–8.CrossRef
go back to reference Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
go back to reference Lotfi, S., Rostami, R., Shokoohi-Yekta, M., Ward, R. T., Motamed-Yeganeh, N., Mathew, A. S., & Lee, H. J. (2020). Effects of computerized cognitive training for children with dyslexia: An ERP study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 55, 100904.CrossRef Lotfi, S., Rostami, R., Shokoohi-Yekta, M., Ward, R. T., Motamed-Yeganeh, N., Mathew, A. S., & Lee, H. J. (2020). Effects of computerized cognitive training for children with dyslexia: An ERP study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 55, 100904.CrossRef
go back to reference Luck, S. J. (2014). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Luck, S. J. (2014). An introduction to the event-related potential technique. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
go back to reference Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & The R. C. Team. (2007). The nlme package: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R Package Version, 3(57), 1–89. Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & The R. C. Team. (2007). The nlme package: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R Package Version, 3(57), 1–89.
go back to reference Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Effects of Emotional Working Memory Training on Worry Symptoms and Error-Related Negativity of Individuals with High Trait Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study
Auteurs
Salahadin Lotfi
Richard T. Ward
Maryam Ayazi
Ken P. Bennett
Christine L. Larson
Han-Joo Lee
Publicatiedatum
31-10-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 5/2021
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10164-7

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2021

Cognitive Therapy and Research 5/2021 Naar de uitgave