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26-04-2017 | Original Paper

The Effects of Early Language on Age at Diagnosis and Functioning at School Age in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Auteurs: Anthony Goodwin, Nicole L. Matthews, Christopher J. Smith

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2017

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Abstract

Research suggests that toddlers with no language delay (NLD) should have better outcomes than those with language delay (LD). However, the predictive utility of language milestones relative to co-varying factors such as age at diagnosis, IQ, and ASD symptomatology is unclear. This study compared school-aged children with ASD and NLD (n = 59) to a well-matched group with ASD and LD (n = 59). The LD group was diagnosed at younger ages and their historical ASD symptoms were more severe than the NLD group. The groups were similar in current ASD symptoms and adaptive functioning at school age. Language milestones were correlated with adaptive functioning, but IQ and social symptoms of ASD were stronger predictors of functioning at school age. Therefore, language milestones may not be the best indicators of prognosis for children who are diagnosed after toddlerhood.
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Voetnoten
1
The ADI-R provides a single set of cut-offs for Autism, with no lower cut-offs provided for ASD. Although most participants met ADI-R criteria for Autism, some met criteria provided by other authors for Borderline Autism (n = 3; Buxbaum et al. 2001, pgs. 1515–1516), Asperger’s Disorder or PDD-NOS (ns = 1 and 6, respectively; Seltzer et al. 2003, pg. 569).
 
2
Spearman correlations account for skewness and kurtosis by rank-ordering values of each variable prior to correlating them. They are also robust to outliers. The resulting value, Spearman’s rho (ρ), is equivalent to Pearson’s r in interpretation.
 
3
Although neither the current study nor the study by Frost and colleagues included children across the full range of language abilities, it is reasonable to assume that the presence vs. absence of language would be a strong predictor of functioning (e.g., Venter et al. 1992).
 
4
We thank an anonymous reviewer for this suggestion.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
The Effects of Early Language on Age at Diagnosis and Functioning at School Age in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auteurs
Anthony Goodwin
Nicole L. Matthews
Christopher J. Smith
Publicatiedatum
26-04-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2017
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3133-1

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