Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
We examined the effects of anxiety and situation-specific contextual information on attentional, interpretational, and behavioural processes underpinning perceptual–motor performance as proposed by Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans (Psychological Research 76:747–759; Nieuwenhuys, Oudejans, Psychological Research 76:747–759, 2012) using an in situ task. Twelve skilled cricket batsmen played against a skilled spin bowler under conditions manipulated to induce low and high levels of anxiety and the presence of low and high levels of situation-specific context. High anxiety decreased the number of good bat–ball contacts, while high levels of situation-specific context increased the number of times the ball was missed. When under high anxiety, participants employed significantly more fixations of shorter duration to more locations, but the effects of anxiety were restricted to the attentional level only. Situation-specific context affected performance and behavioural measures but not anxiety, cognitive load or perceptual–cognitive processes, suggesting that performance is influenced through different mechanisms from anxiety that are independent of working memory load.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Broadbent, D. P., Causer, J., Williams, A. M., & Ford, P. R. (2014). Perceptual–cognitive skills training and its transfer to expert performance in the field: Future research directions. European Journal of Sport Science, 4, 1–10.
Causer, J., Holmes, P. S., Smith, N. C., & Williams, A. M. (2011). Anxiety, movement kinematics, and visual attention in elite-level performers. Emotion (Washington, DC), 11, 595–602. CrossRef
Cocks, A. J., Jackson, R. C., Bishop, D. T., & Williams, A. M. (2015). Anxiety, anticipation and contextual information: A test of attentional control theory. Cognition and Emotion, 25, 1–12.
Derakshan, N., & Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive performance: New developments from attentional control theory. European Psychologist, 14, 168–176. CrossRef
Eccles, D. W. (2012). Verbal reports of cognitive processes. In G. Tenenbaum, R. C. Eklund & A. Kamata (Eds.), Measurement in sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Ericsson, K. A., & Kirk, E. (2001). Instructions for giving retrospective verbal reports. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1993). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data (revised edition). Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press.
Eysenck, M. W., & Calvo, M. G. (1992). Anxiety and performance: The processing efficiency theory. Cognition and Emotion, 6, 409–434. CrossRef
Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion (Washington, DC), 7, 336–353. CrossRef
Girden, E. R. (1992). ANOVA: Repeated measures. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. CrossRef
Headrick, J., Renshaw, I., Davids, K., Pinder, R. A., & Araújo, D. (2015). The dynamics of expertise acquisition in sport: The role of affective learning design. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 83–90. CrossRef
Krane, V. (1994). The Mental Readiness Form as a measure of competitive state anxiety. The Sport Psychologist, 8, 189–202. CrossRef
Masters, R. S., & Maxwel, J. (2008). The theory of reinvestment. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 160–183. CrossRef
McLaughlin, M. J., & Sainani, K. L. (2014). Bonferroni, Holm, and Hochberg corrections: Fun names, serious changes to p values. PM&R, 6, 544–546. CrossRef
Muller, S., Brenton, J., & Rosalie, S. M. (2015). Methodological considerations for investigating expert interceptive skill in in situ settings. Sport, Exercise and Performance Psychology, 4, 254–267. CrossRef
Murray, N. P., & Jannelle, C. M. (2003). Anxiety and performance: A visual search examination of processing efficiency theory. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 171–187. CrossRef
Nieuwenhuys, A., Savelsbergh, G. J., & Oudejans, R. R. (2012). Shoot or don’t shoot? Why police officers are more inclined to shoot when they are anxious. Emotion (Washington, DC), 12, 827–833. CrossRef
Oudejans, R. R., & Pijpers, J. R. (2010). Training with mild anxiety may prevent choking under higher levels of anxiety. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 44–50. CrossRef
Oxford Dictionaries (2016). Oxford University Press. Retrieved May 11, 2016, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/context.
Panchuck, D., & Vickers, J. N. (2006). Gaze behaviours of goal tenders under spatial–temporal constraints. Human Movement Science, 25, 733–752. CrossRef
Paull, G., & Glencross, D. (1997). Expert perception in decision making in Baseball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 28, 35–56.
Pijpers, J. R., Oudejans, R. R., Bakker, F. C., & Beek, P. J. (2006). The role of anxiety in perceiving and realizing affordances. Ecological Psychology, 18, 131–161. CrossRef
Ward, P., Williams, A. M., & Ericsson, K. A. (2003). Underlying mechanisms of perceptual–cognitive expertise in soccer. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, S136. CrossRef
Zijlstra, F. R. (1993). Efficiency in work behaviour; a design approach for modern tools. Delft: Delft University Press.
- The effects of anxiety and situation-specific context on perceptual–motor skill: a multi-level investigation
Oliver R. Runswick
A. Mark Williams
Neil E. Bezodis
Jamie S. North
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg