Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-2004-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The aim was to evaluate whether neck-specific exercise, with (NSEB) or without (NSE) a behavioural approach, improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to physical activity prescription (PPA) in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) grades 2 and 3. A secondary aim was to identify factors associated with HRQoL and HRQoL improvement following exercise interventions.
This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre randomized clinical trial. Participants (n = 216) with chronic WAD grades 2 and 3 were randomized to 12 weeks of PPA or physiotherapist-led NSE or NSEB. The EQ-5D 3L/EQ-VAS and SF-36v2 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries were collected together with several neck-related and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, after 3, 6 and 12 months, and were analysed with linear mixed models (all time points) and multivariate linear regressions (baseline, 6 months).
NSE/NSEB resulted in better outcomes than PPA (EQ-VAS and SF-36 PCS, both groups, p < 0.01) but not in a higher EQ-5D score. Improvement over time was seen in EQ-5D/EQ-VAS for the NSEB group (p < 0.01), and for NSE/NSEB as measured with the PCS (p < 0.01). Factors associated with baseline HRQoL and change to 6 months in HRQoL (R2 = 0.38–0.59) were both neck-related and psychosocial (e.g. depression, work ability).
Neck-specific exercise, particularly with a behavioural approach, may have a more positive impact on HRQoL than physical activity prescription in chronic WAD grades 2 and 3. HRQoL is however complex, and other factors also need to be considered. Factors associated with HRQL and improvements in HRQoL following exercise are multidimensional.
Trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov, No. NCT01528579.
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 KB)11136_2018_2004_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Disease, G. B. D., Injury, I., & Prevalence, C. (2016). Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet, 388(10053), 1545–1602. CrossRef
Holm, L. W., Carroll, L. J., Cassidy, J. D., Hogg-Johnson, S., Cote, P., Guzman, J., et al. (2008). The burden and determinants of neck pain in whiplash-associated disorders after traffic collisions: Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 33(4 Suppl), S52–S59. CrossRef
Galasko, G., Murray, P., & Stephenson, W. (2002). Incidence of whiplash-associated disorder. BCMJ, 44, 237–240.
Lamb, S. E., Gates, S., Williams, M. A., Williamson, E. M., Mt-Isa, S., Withers, E. J., et al. (2013). Emergency department treatments and physiotherapy for acute whiplash: A pragmatic, two-step, randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 381(9866), 546–556. CrossRef
Carroll, L. J., Holm, L. W., Hogg-Johnson, S., Cote, P., Cassidy, J. D., Haldeman, S., et al. (2008). Course and prognostic factors for neck pain in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD): Results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 33(4 Suppl), S83–S92. CrossRef
Walton, D. M., Macdermid, J. C., Giorgianni, A. A., Mascarenhas, J. C., West, S. C., & Zammit, C. A. (2013). Risk factors for persistent problems following acute whiplash injury: Update of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 43, 31–43. CrossRef
Norris, S. H., & Watt, I. (1983). The prognosis of neck injuries resulting from rear-end vehicle collisions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 65(5), 608–611. CrossRef
Ris, I., Juul-Kristensen, B., Boyle, E., Kongsted, A., Manniche, C., & Sogaard, K. (2017). Chronic neck pain patients with traumatic or non-traumatic onset: Differences in characteristics. A cross-sectional study. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 14, 1–8. CrossRef
Guez, M. (2006). Chronic neck pain. An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders. Acta Orthopaedica, 77(320), preceding 1, 3–33.
Pink, J., Petrou, S., Williamson, E., Williams, M., & Lamb, S. E. (2016). Economic and health-related quality of life outcomes of whiplash associated disorders. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 41(17), 1378–1386. CrossRef
Borsbo, B., Peolsson, M., & Gerdle, B. (2008). Catastrophizing, depression, and pain: Correlation with and influence on quality of life and health—a study of chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(7), 562–569. CrossRef
Peolsson, M., & Gerdle, B. (2004). Coping in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: A descriptive study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 36(1), 28–35. CrossRef
Sullivan, M., & Karlsson, J. (1998). The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey III. Evaluation of criterion-based validity: Results from normative population. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51(11), 1105–1113. CrossRef
Saarni, S. I., Harkanen, T., Sintonen, H., Suvisaari, J., Koskinen, S., Aromaa, A., et al. (2006). The impact of 29 chronic conditions on health-related quality of life: A general population survey in Finland using 15D and EQ-5D. Quality of life Research, 15(8), 1403–1414. CrossRef
The World Health Organisation, W. Constitution of the World Health Organization: Principles 1947. Retrieved April 2, 2018, from http://www.who.int/about/mission/en/.
Nijs, J., Van Oosterwijck, J., & De Hertogh, W. (2009). Rehabilitation of chronic whiplash: Treatment of cervical dysfunctions or chronic pain syndrome? Clinical Rheumatology, 28(3), 243–251. CrossRef
Jull, G., Kristjansson, E., & Dall’Alba, P. (2004). Impairment in the cervical flexors: A comparison of whiplash and insidious onset neck pain patients. Manual Therapy, 9(2), 89–94. CrossRef
Peterson, G., Nilsson, D., Trygg, J., Falla, D., Dedering, A., Wallman, T., et al. (2015). Novel insights into the interplay between ventral neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders. Scientific Reports, 5, 15289. CrossRef
Peterson, G., Nilsson, D., Peterson, S., Dedering, A., Trygg, J., Wallman, T., et al. (2016). Changes in dorsal neck muscle function in individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: A real-time ultrasound case-control study. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 45, 1090–1102. CrossRef
Elliott, J. M., Pedler, A. R., Jull, G. A., Van Wyk, L., Galloway, G. G., & O’Leary, S. P. (2014). Differential changes in muscle composition exist in traumatic and nontraumatic neck pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 39(1), 39–47. CrossRef
Warburton, D. E., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. CMAJ, 174(6), 801–809. CrossRef
Ludvigsson, M. L., Peterson, G., O’Leary, S., Dedering, A., & Peolsson, A. (2015). The effect of neck-specific exercise with, or without a behavioral approach, on pain, disability, and self-efficacy in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: A randomized clinical trial. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 31(4), 294–303. CrossRef
Spitzer, W. O., Skovron, M. L., Salmi, L. R., Cassidy, J. D., Duranceau, J., Suissa, S., et al. (1995). Scientific monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders: Redefining “whiplash” and its management. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 20(8 Suppl), 1S–73S.
Landen Ludvigsson, M., Peterson, G., Dedering, A., & Peolsson, A. (2016). One- and two-year follow-up of a randomized trial of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioural approach compared with prescription of physical activity in chronic whiplash disorder. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 48:56–64. CrossRef
Vernon, H. (2008). The Neck Disability Index: State-of-the-art, 1991–2008. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 31(7), 491–502. CrossRef
Tuomi, K. I. J., Jahkola, A., Katajarinne, L., & Tulkki, A. (1988). Work Ability Index (2nd revised edn.). Finland: Helsinki.
Landén Ludvigsson, M., Pelosson, A., & Peterson, G. (2015). Retrieved April 25, 2018, from http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113865.
Pool, J. J., Ostelo, R. W., Knol, D. L., Vlaeyen, J. W., Bouter, L. M., & de Vet, H. C. (2010). Is a behavioral graded activity program more effective than manual therapy in patients with subacute neck pain? Results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 35(10), 1017–1024. CrossRef
Professional Associations for Physical Activity, YFA. Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Stockholm: Swedish National Institute of Public Health; 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from http://www.fyss.se/far-fysisk-aktivitet-pa-recept/.
Landen Ludvigsson, M., Peolsson, A., Peterson, G., Dedering, A., Johansson, G., & Bernfort, L. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach versus physical activity prescription in the treatment of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Analyses of a randomized clinical trial. Medicine (Baltimore), 96(25), e7274. CrossRef
Whitehurst, D. G., & Bryan, S. (2011). Another study showing that two preference-based measures of health-related quality of life (EQ-5D and SF-6D) are not interchangeable. But why should we expect them to be? Value in Health: The Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, 14(4), 531–538. CrossRef
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, NICE. Measuring effectiveness and cost effectiveness: The QALY 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2018, from https://www.nice.org.uk/proxy/?sourceurl=http://www.nice.org.uk/newsroom/features/measuringeffectivenessandcosteffectivenesstheqaly.jsp.
EuroQol, G. (1990). EuroQol–a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16(3), 199–208. CrossRef
Brooks, R. (1996). EuroQol: The current state of play. Health Policy, 37(1), 53–72. CrossRef
Janssen, M. F., Szende, A., Cabases, J., Ramos-Goni, J. M., Vilagut, G., & Konig, H. H. (2018). Population norms for the EQ-5D-3L: A cross-country analysis of population surveys for 20 countries. The European Journal of Health Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-018-0955-5
Sullivan, M., Karlsson, J., & Ware, J. E. Jr. (1995). The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey–I. Evaluation of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and construct validity across general populations in Sweden. Social Science & Medicine, 41(10), 1349–1358. CrossRef
Ware, J. E. (2000). Jr. SF-36 health survey update. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 25(24), 3130–3139. CrossRef
Ware, J. E. Jr., Gandek, B., Kosinski, M., Aaronson, N. K., Apolone, G., Brazier, J., et al. (1998). The equivalence of SF-36 summary health scores estimated using standard and country-specific algorithms in 10 countries: Results from the IQOLA Project. International Quality of Life Assessment. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51(11), 1167–1170. CrossRef
Bess, S., Line, B., Fu, K. M., McCarthy, I., Lafage, V., Schwab, F., et al. (2016). The health impact of symptomatic adult spinal deformity: Comparison of deformity types to United States population norms and chronic diseases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 41(3), 224–233. CrossRef
Lisspers, J., Nygren, A., & Soderman, E. (1997). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD): Some psychometric data for a Swedish sample. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96(4), 281–286. CrossRef
Roelofs, J., Sluiter, J. K., Frings-Dresen, M. H., Goossens, M., Thibault, P., Boersma, K., et al. (2007). Fear of movement and (re)injury in chronic musculoskeletal pain: Evidence for an invariant two-factor model of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across pain diagnoses and Dutch, Swedish, and Canadian samples. Pain, 131(1–2), 181–190. CrossRef
Osman, A., Barrios, F. X., Gutierrez, P. M., Kopper, B. A., Merrifield, T., & Grittmann, L. (2000). The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: Further psychometric evaluation with adult samples. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(4), 351–365. CrossRef
Altmaier, E. M., Russell, D. W., Kao, C. F., Lehmann, T. R., & Weinstein, J. N. (1993). Role of self-efficacy in rehabilitation outcome among chronic low back pain patients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40(3), 335–339. CrossRef
Tait, R. C., Chibnall, J. T., & Krause, S. (1990). The Pain Disability Index: Psychometric properties. Pain, 40(2), 171–182. CrossRef
Dolan, P. G. C., Kind, P., & Williams, A. (1995). A social tariff for the EuroQol: Results from a UK general population survey. Centre for Health Economics Discussion Paper, University of York, UK. Vol. 138, pp. 1–24.
Lauche, R. L. J., Dobos, G. J., & Cramer, H. (2013). Clinically meaningful differences in pain, disability and quality of life for chronic nonspecific neck pain—a reanalysis of 4 randomized controlled trials of cupping therapy. Complement Ther Med, 21(4), 342–347. CrossRef
Yoshizawa, K., Kobayashi, H., Fujie, M., Ogawa, Y., Yajima, T., & Kawai, K. (2016). Estimation of minimal clinically important change of the Japanese version of EQ-5D in patients with chronic noncancer pain: A retrospective research using real-world data. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14, 35. CrossRef
Overmeer, T., Peterson, G., Landen Ludvigsson, M., & Peolsson, A. (2016). The effect of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach on psychological factors in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up. Medicine (Baltimore), 95(34), e4430. CrossRef
Ardern, C. L., Peterson, G., Ludvigsson, M. L., & Peolsson, A. (2016). Satisfaction with the outcome of physical therapist-prescribed exercise in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 46(8), 640–649. CrossRef
Peterson, G. E., Landen Ludvigsson, M. H., O’Leary, S. P., Dedering, A. M., Wallman, T., Jonsson, M. I., et al. (2015). The effect of 3 different exercise approaches on neck muscle endurance, kinesiophobia, exercise compliance, and patient satisfaction in chronic whiplash. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 38(7), 465–476. e4. CrossRef
Treleaven, J., Peterson, G., Ludvigsson, M. L., Kammerlind, A. S., & Peolsson, A. (2016). Balance, dizziness and proprioception in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders complaining of dizziness: A prospective randomized study comparing three exercise programs. Manual Therapy, 22, 122–130. CrossRef
Wegner, M., Helmich, I., Machado, S., Nardi, A. E., Arias-Carrion, O., & Budde, H. (2014). Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: Review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms. CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets, 13(6), 1002–1014. CrossRef
Kwan Lo, H., Johnston, V., Landén Ludvigsson, M., Peterson, G., Overmeer, T., David, D., & Peolsson, A. (2018). Factors associated with work ability following exercise interventions for individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders: A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2374.
Wiebe, S., Guyatt, G., Weaver, B., Matijevic, S., & Sidwell, C. (2003). Comparative responsiveness of generic and specific quality-of-life instruments. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 56(1), 52–60. CrossRef
Brazier, J., Roberts, J., Tsuchiya, A., & Busschbach, J. (2004). A comparison of the EQ-5D and SF-6D across seven patient groups. Health Economics, 13(9), 873–884. CrossRef
- The effect of three exercise approaches on health-related quality of life, and factors associated with its improvement in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: analysis of a randomized controlled trial
Maria Landén Ludvigsson
- Springer International Publishing