Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 5/2010

01-10-2010 | Original Paper

The Effect of Parental Responsiveness on Differences in Psychological Distress and Delinquency between Singleton and Non-Singleton Chinese Adolescents

Auteurs: Ruth X. Liu, Wei Lin, Zeng-yin Chen

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 5/2010

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

We assessed the differences in psychological distress and delinquent participation between singleton and non-singleton Chinese adolescents and the extent to which parental responsiveness (mother’s vs. father’s) might account for such differences. Using survey reports of 1,924 7th and 8th graders from three middle schools in the outskirts of Fuzhou, China, we observed small but significant differences between singleton and non-singleton adolescents. Singletons reported lower levels of psychological distress and delinquent participation than non-singleton adolescents. Furthermore, singletons received higher levels of parental responsiveness, which was inversely related to psychological distress and delinquent participation, respectively. The difference in psychological distress between singletons and non-singletons was completely mediated by both maternal and paternal responsiveness. Paternal responsiveness alone fully mediated the difference in delinquent participation between singleton and non-singleton adolescents. We discussed these results in light of both theoretical literature and empirical implications.
Voetnoten
1
We obtained permission to conduct our study from both the local education bureau and school authorities. The school authorities in turn notified the students and their parents of the impending study. The students were given the option to decline participation and not to return the self-administered questionnaires.
 
2
We focused on parental responsiveness to children’s good behaviors. This is because in Chinese families, children’s good behaviors tend to be taken for granted while unsatisfactory behaviors are often dealt with harshly (such as through use of shame and guilt) (Mascolo et al. 2003). Chinese culture emphasizes modesty and self-effacement in the socialization and upbringing of children, thus positive responses to children’s good behavior do not come naturally with Chinese parents (Mascolo et al. 2003). Following this rationale, parents of singletons with their undivided attention to their only children, may make greater efforts to grant their children with more positive responses than parents of multiple children who arguably are not as child-centered.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1982). Attachment: Retrospect and prospect. In C. M. Parkes & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), The place of attachment in human behavior (pp. 3–30). New York: Basic Books. Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1982). Attachment: Retrospect and prospect. In C. M. Parkes & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), The place of attachment in human behavior (pp. 3–30). New York: Basic Books.
go back to reference Armsden, G., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent peer attachment: Individual differences and their relation to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454. CrossRef Armsden, G., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The inventory of parent peer attachment: Individual differences and their relation to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427–454. CrossRef
go back to reference Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54, 317–326. CrossRefPubMed Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54, 317–326. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. CrossRefPubMed Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Attachment (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Basic. (Original work published 1969). Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Attachment (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Basic. (Original work published 1969).
go back to reference Chen, Z., Dornbusch, S. M., & Liu, R. X. (2007). Direct and indirect pathways in the link between parental constructive behavior and adolescent affiliation with achievement-oriented peers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 837–858. CrossRef Chen, Z., Dornbusch, S. M., & Liu, R. X. (2007). Direct and indirect pathways in the link between parental constructive behavior and adolescent affiliation with achievement-oriented peers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 837–858. CrossRef
go back to reference Chow, E. N., & Chen, K. (1994). The impact of the one-child policy on women and the patriarchal family in the People’s Republic of China. In E. N. Chow & C. W. Berheide (Eds.), Women, the family, and policy: A global perspectives (pp. 71–98). Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Chow, E. N., & Chen, K. (1994). The impact of the one-child policy on women and the patriarchal family in the People’s Republic of China. In E. N. Chow & C. W. Berheide (Eds.), Women, the family, and policy: A global perspectives (pp. 71–98). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
go back to reference Chow, E. N., & Zhao, S. M. (1996). The one-child policy and parent–child relationships: A comparison of one-child with multiple-child families in China. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 16, 35–62. CrossRef Chow, E. N., & Zhao, S. M. (1996). The one-child policy and parent–child relationships: A comparison of one-child with multiple-child families in China. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 16, 35–62. CrossRef
go back to reference Cox, M. J., & Harter, K. S. M. (2003). Parent–child relationships. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Well-being: Positive development across the life course (pp. 191–204). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Cox, M. J., & Harter, K. S. M. (2003). Parent–child relationships. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Well-being: Positive development across the life course (pp. 191–204). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
go back to reference Culp, R. E., Schadle, S., & Robinson, L. (2000). Relationships among paternal involvement and young children’s perceived self-competence and behavioral problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 27–38. CrossRef Culp, R. E., Schadle, S., & Robinson, L. (2000). Relationships among paternal involvement and young children’s perceived self-competence and behavioral problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 27–38. CrossRef
go back to reference Doh, H., & Falbo, T. (1999). Social competence, maternal attentiveness, and overprotectiveness: Only children in Korea. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 149–162. CrossRef Doh, H., & Falbo, T. (1999). Social competence, maternal attentiveness, and overprotectiveness: Only children in Korea. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 149–162. CrossRef
go back to reference Downey, D. B., & Condron, D. J. (2004). Playing well with others in kindergarten: The benefit of siblings at home. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66, 333–350. CrossRef Downey, D. B., & Condron, D. J. (2004). Playing well with others in kindergarten: The benefit of siblings at home. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66, 333–350. CrossRef
go back to reference Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Falbo, T. (1982). The only-child family in the United States: Research issues and results. Studies in Family Planning, 13, 212–215. CrossRefPubMed Falbo, T. (1982). The only-child family in the United States: Research issues and results. Studies in Family Planning, 13, 212–215. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Falbo, T. (1987). Only children in the United States and China. Applied Social Psychology Annual, 7, 159–183. Falbo, T. (1987). Only children in the United States and China. Applied Social Psychology Annual, 7, 159–183.
go back to reference Falbo, T., & Polit, D. F. (1986). Quantitative review of the only child literature: Research evidence and theory development. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 176–189. CrossRef Falbo, T., & Polit, D. F. (1986). Quantitative review of the only child literature: Research evidence and theory development. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 176–189. CrossRef
go back to reference Falbo, T., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (1993). The academic, personality, and physical outcomes of only children in China. Child Development, 64, 18–35. CrossRefPubMed Falbo, T., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (1993). The academic, personality, and physical outcomes of only children in China. Child Development, 64, 18–35. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Falbo, T., Poston, D. L., Ji, G., Jiao, S., Jing, Q., Wang, S., et al. (1989). Physical, achievement, and personality characteristics of Chinese children. Journal of Biosocial Science, 21, 483–495. CrossRefPubMed Falbo, T., Poston, D. L., Ji, G., Jiao, S., Jing, Q., Wang, S., et al. (1989). Physical, achievement, and personality characteristics of Chinese children. Journal of Biosocial Science, 21, 483–495. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fong, V. A. (2004). Only hope: Coming of age under China’s one-child policy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Fong, V. A. (2004). Only hope: Coming of age under China’s one-child policy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
go back to reference Gecas, V., & Seff, M. A. (1990). Families and adolescents: A review of the 1980s. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 941–958. CrossRef Gecas, V., & Seff, M. A. (1990). Families and adolescents: A review of the 1980s. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 941–958. CrossRef
go back to reference Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584. CrossRef Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. (1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584. CrossRef
go back to reference Ho, D. Y. F. (1987). Fatherhood in Chinese culture. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The father’s role: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 227–245). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ho, D. Y. F. (1987). Fatherhood in Chinese culture. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The father’s role: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 227–245). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Jiao, S., Ji, G., & Jing, Q. (1996). Cognitive development of Chinese urban only children and children with siblings. Child Development, 67, 387–395. CrossRef Jiao, S., Ji, G., & Jing, Q. (1996). Cognitive development of Chinese urban only children and children with siblings. Child Development, 67, 387–395. CrossRef
go back to reference Jing, Q., Lin, G., Ji, G., Jiao, S., & Fan, C. (2003). Psychological studies on Chinese only children in the last two decades. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 3, 163–181. Jing, Q., Lin, G., Ji, G., Jiao, S., & Fan, C. (2003). Psychological studies on Chinese only children in the last two decades. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 3, 163–181.
go back to reference Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International. Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
go back to reference Kaplan, H. B., & Pokorny, A. D. (1969). Self-derogation and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 149, 421–434. CrossRefPubMed Kaplan, H. B., & Pokorny, A. D. (1969). Self-derogation and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 149, 421–434. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1994). Divergent realities: The emotional lives of mothers, fathers, and adolescents. New York: Basic. Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1994). Divergent realities: The emotional lives of mothers, fathers, and adolescents. New York: Basic.
go back to reference Liu, R. X. (2004). Parent–youth conflict and school delinquency/cigarette use: The moderating effects of gender and associations with achievement-oriented peers. Sociological Inquiry, 74, 271–297. CrossRef Liu, R. X. (2004). Parent–youth conflict and school delinquency/cigarette use: The moderating effects of gender and associations with achievement-oriented peers. Sociological Inquiry, 74, 271–297. CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, R. X. (2005). Parent–youth closeness and youth’s suicidal ideation: The moderating effects of gender, stages of adolescence, and race/ethnicity. Youth and Society, 37, 145–175. CrossRef Liu, R. X. (2005). Parent–youth closeness and youth’s suicidal ideation: The moderating effects of gender, stages of adolescence, and race/ethnicity. Youth and Society, 37, 145–175. CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, X., & Kaplan, H. B. (1999a). Explaining the gender difference in adolescent delinquent behavior: A longitudinal test of mediating mechanisms. Criminology, 37, 195–216. CrossRef Liu, X., & Kaplan, H. B. (1999a). Explaining the gender difference in adolescent delinquent behavior: A longitudinal test of mediating mechanisms. Criminology, 37, 195–216. CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, X., & Kaplan, H. B. (1999b). Explaining gender differences in symptoms of subjective distress in young adolescents. Stress Medicine, 15, 41–51. CrossRef Liu, X., & Kaplan, H. B. (1999b). Explaining gender differences in symptoms of subjective distress in young adolescents. Stress Medicine, 15, 41–51. CrossRef
go back to reference Liu, R. X., & Kaplan, H. B. (2004). Role stress and aggression among young adults: The moderating influences of gender and adolescent aggression. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67, 88–102. CrossRef Liu, R. X., & Kaplan, H. B. (2004). Role stress and aggression among young adults: The moderating influences of gender and adolescent aggression. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67, 88–102. CrossRef
go back to reference Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In E. M. Heatherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality and social development (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley. Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In E. M. Heatherington (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality and social development (Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Mancillas, A. (2006). Challenging the stereotypes about only children: A review of the literature and implications for practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84, 268–275. Mancillas, A. (2006). Challenging the stereotypes about only children: A review of the literature and implications for practice. Journal of Counseling and Development, 84, 268–275.
go back to reference Manuel, B., Jr., & Li, S. A. (1996). The relation of family support to adolescents’ psychological distress and behavior problems. In G. R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family (pp. 313–344). New York: Plenum Press. Manuel, B., Jr., & Li, S. A. (1996). The relation of family support to adolescents’ psychological distress and behavior problems. In G. R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family (pp. 313–344). New York: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Mascolo, M. F., Fischer, K. W., & Li, J. (2003). Dynamic development of component systems of emotions: Pride, shame, and guilt in China and the United States. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 375–408). New York: Oxford University Press. Mascolo, M. F., Fischer, K. W., & Li, J. (2003). Dynamic development of component systems of emotions: Pride, shame, and guilt in China and the United States. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 375–408). New York: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Polit, D. F., & Falbo, T. (1987). Only children and personality development: A quantitative review. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 309–325. CrossRef Polit, D. F., & Falbo, T. (1987). Only children and personality development: A quantitative review. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 309–325. CrossRef
go back to reference Poston, D. L., & Falbo, T. (1990a). Academic performance and personality traits of Chinese children: ‘Onlies’ versus others. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 433–451. CrossRef Poston, D. L., & Falbo, T. (1990a). Academic performance and personality traits of Chinese children: ‘Onlies’ versus others. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 433–451. CrossRef
go back to reference Poston, D. L., & Falbo, T. (1990b). Scholastic and personality characteristics of only children and children with siblings in China. International Family Planning Perspectives, 16, 45–54. CrossRef Poston, D. L., & Falbo, T. (1990b). Scholastic and personality characteristics of only children and children with siblings in China. International Family Planning Perspectives, 16, 45–54. CrossRef
go back to reference Roberts, L. C., & Blanton, P. W. (2001). I always knew mom and dad love me best: Experiences of only children. Journal of Individual Psychology, 57, 125–140. Roberts, L. C., & Blanton, P. W. (2001). I always knew mom and dad love me best: Experiences of only children. Journal of Individual Psychology, 57, 125–140.
go back to reference Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
go back to reference Schachter, S. (1959). The psychology of affiliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Schachter, S. (1959). The psychology of affiliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
go back to reference Shek, D. T. L. (1995). Chinese adolescents’ perceptions of parenting styles of fathers and mothers. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 156, 175–190. CrossRefPubMed Shek, D. T. L. (1995). Chinese adolescents’ perceptions of parenting styles of fathers and mothers. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 156, 175–190. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Short, S. E., Zhai, F., Xu, S., & Yang, M. (2001). China’s one-child policy and the care of children: An analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. Social Forces, 79, 913–943. CrossRef Short, S. E., Zhai, F., Xu, S., & Yang, M. (2001). China’s one-child policy and the care of children: An analysis of qualitative and quantitative data. Social Forces, 79, 913–943. CrossRef
go back to reference Shwalb, D., Nakawaza, J., Yamamoto, T., & Hyun, J. H. (2004). Fathering in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean cultures: A review of the research literature. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 146–181). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Shwalb, D., Nakawaza, J., Yamamoto, T., & Hyun, J. H. (2004). Fathering in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean cultures: A review of the research literature. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 146–181). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
go back to reference Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Wallace, L. E. (2004). Families, delinquency, and crime: Linking society’s most basic institution to antisocial behavior. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company. Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Wallace, L. E. (2004). Families, delinquency, and crime: Linking society’s most basic institution to antisocial behavior. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company.
go back to reference Tao, G., Qiu, J., Li, B., & Tseng, W. (1996). Comparison of behavior development between only children and children with siblings: A 6-year follow-up study. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 10, 1–5. Tao, G., Qiu, J., Li, B., & Tseng, W. (1996). Comparison of behavior development between only children and children with siblings: A 6-year follow-up study. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 10, 1–5.
go back to reference Wang, D., Kato, N., Inaba, Y., Tango, T., Yoshida, Y., & Kusaka, Y. (2000). Physical and personality traits of preschool children in Fuzhou, China: Only child vs. sibling. Child: Care, Health and Development, 26, 49. CrossRef Wang, D., Kato, N., Inaba, Y., Tango, T., Yoshida, Y., & Kusaka, Y. (2000). Physical and personality traits of preschool children in Fuzhou, China: Only child vs. sibling. Child: Care, Health and Development, 26, 49. CrossRef
go back to reference Wu, D. (2002). Morality, personality, and temperament of single and non-single children aged 4–14 years. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 16, 454–456. Wu, D. (2002). Morality, personality, and temperament of single and non-single children aged 4–14 years. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 16, 454–456.
go back to reference Yang, J. (2007). China’s one-child policy and overweight children in the 1990s. Social Science and Medicine, 64, 2043–2057. CrossRefPubMed Yang, J. (2007). China’s one-child policy and overweight children in the 1990s. Social Science and Medicine, 64, 2043–2057. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Zhang, S. (1997). Investigation of behavior problem of only child in kindergarten children in a Beijing urban area. International Medical Journal, 4, 117–118. Zhang, S. (1997). Investigation of behavior problem of only child in kindergarten children in a Beijing urban area. International Medical Journal, 4, 117–118.
go back to reference Zhao, S. M. (1995). Population policy formation and the impact of the only-child policy on families in the People’s Republic of China. Ph.D. Dissertation. Washington, DC: The American University. Zhao, S. M. (1995). Population policy formation and the impact of the only-child policy on families in the People’s Republic of China. Ph.D. Dissertation. Washington, DC: The American University.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Effect of Parental Responsiveness on Differences in Psychological Distress and Delinquency between Singleton and Non-Singleton Chinese Adolescents
Auteurs
Ruth X. Liu
Wei Lin
Zeng-yin Chen
Publicatiedatum
01-10-2010
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 5/2010
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9329-z