Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 7/2021

12-05-2021 | ORIGINAL PAPER

The Effect of Mindfulness and Compassion Meditation on State Empathy and Emotion

Auteurs: Jesse Martin-Allan, Peter Leeson, William Lovegrove

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 7/2021

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

Research suggests meditation may increase empathy and emotional engagement. Whilst this may be beneficial in professions where empathy results in greater effectiveness (e.g. psychotherapy), emotional engagement may also produce emotional burnout. This study aims to determine whether mindfulness and/or compassion meditation can prime empathy prior to connecting with another’s emotions, and facilitate emotional stability afterwards.

Methods

University students (N = 156) listened to recordings of compassion meditation, mindfulness meditation or a control, then watched videos depicting sadness, happiness or anxiety, then listened to compassion, mindfulness or control recordings again. This produced five groups: Compassion-compassion (i.e. compassion meditation before and after videos), mindfulness-mindfulness, mindfulness-compassion, compassion-mindfulness and a control. State emotions and empathy were assessed throughout.

Results

Compassion and mindfulness meditation resulted in greater empathy than the control (p = .03). Prior to watching videos, mindfulness meditation produced greater sadness and anxiety, and compassion meditation produced greater sadness and happiness (p = .001). After watching videos, happiness was greater in the mindfulness-mindfulness and compassion-compassion condition (p = .03).

Conclusions

Both types of meditation resulted in greater self-reported distressing emotions prior to videos (and happiness in compassion condition), and empathy during presentation compared to the control. Afterwards, there was an increase in positive emotions in the compassion-compassion and mindfulness-mindfulness conditions. This indicates that meditation may allow for individuals to process emotional content in a way that is conducive to wellbeing. Whilst compassion meditation is often combined with mindfulness, these results suggest using a consistent approach of either mindfulness or compassion is most beneficial to wellbeing.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45.
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., ... & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Lykins, E., Button, D., Krietemeyer, J., Sauer, S., ... & Williams, J. M. G. (2008). Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment, 15(3), 329–342.
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Lykins, E. L., & Peters, J. R. (2012). Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in long-term meditators and matched nonmeditators. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(3), 230–238. Baer, R. A., Lykins, E. L., & Peters, J. R. (2012). Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of psychological wellbeing in long-term meditators and matched nonmeditators. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(3), 230–238.
go back to reference Barbosa, P., Raymond, G., Zlotnick, C., Wilk, J., Toomey, R., III., & Mitchell, J., III. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training is associated with greater empathy and reduced anxiety for graduate healthcare students. Education for Health, 26(1), 9–20. Barbosa, P., Raymond, G., Zlotnick, C., Wilk, J., Toomey, R., III., & Mitchell, J., III. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction training is associated with greater empathy and reduced anxiety for graduate healthcare students. Education for Health, 26(1), 9–20.
go back to reference Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hargus, E., Amarasinghe, M., Winder, R., & Williams, J. M. G. (2009). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(5), 366–373. Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hargus, E., Amarasinghe, M., Winder, R., & Williams, J. M. G. (2009). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A preliminary study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(5), 366–373.
go back to reference Bartels-Velthuis, A. A., Van Der Ploeg, K., Schroevers, M. J., & Van Den Brink, H. (2015). The effects of a mindfulness based compassionate living training on anxiety and depression in a heterogeneous sample of psychiatric outpatients: a pilot study. European Psychiatry, 30(1), 1–1. Bartels-Velthuis, A. A., Van Der Ploeg, K., Schroevers, M. J., & Van Den Brink, H. (2015). The effects of a mindfulness based compassionate living training on anxiety and depression in a heterogeneous sample of psychiatric outpatients: a pilot study. European Psychiatry, 30(1), 1–1.
go back to reference Bartels-Velthuis, A. A., Schroevers, M. J., van der Ploeg, K., Koster, F., Fleer, J., & van den Brink, E. (2016). A mindfulness-based compassionate living training in a heterogeneous sample of psychiatric outpatients: a feasibility study. Mindfulness, 7(4), 809–818. Bartels-Velthuis, A. A., Schroevers, M. J., van der Ploeg, K., Koster, F., Fleer, J., & van den Brink, E. (2016). A mindfulness-based compassionate living training in a heterogeneous sample of psychiatric outpatients: a feasibility study. Mindfulness, 7(4), 809–818.
go back to reference Beaumont, E., Rayner, G., Durkin, M., & Bowling, G. (2017). The effects of compassionate mind training on student psychotherapists.   Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 12(5), 300–312. Beaumont, E., Rayner, G., Durkin, M., & Bowling, G. (2017). The effects of compassionate mind training on student psychotherapists.   Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 12(5), 300–312.
go back to reference Beddoe, A. E., & Murphy, S. O. (2004). Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing students? Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 305–312. Beddoe, A. E., & Murphy, S. O. (2004). Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing students? Journal of Nursing Education, 43(7), 305–312.
go back to reference Boellinghaus, I., Jones, F. W., & Hutton, J. (2013). Cultivating self-care and compassion in psychological therapists in training: The experience of practicing loving-kindness meditation. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7(4), 267–285. Boellinghaus, I., Jones, F. W., & Hutton, J. (2013). Cultivating self-care and compassion in psychological therapists in training: The experience of practicing loving-kindness meditation. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 7(4), 267–285.
go back to reference Brito-Pons, G., Campos, D., & Cebolla, A. (2018). Implicit or explicit compassion? Effects of compassion cultivation training and comparison with mindfulness-based stress reduction. Mindfulness, 9, 1494–1508. Brito-Pons, G., Campos, D., & Cebolla, A. (2018). Implicit or explicit compassion? Effects of compassion cultivation training and comparison with mindfulness-based stress reduction. Mindfulness, 9, 1494–1508.
go back to reference Buchanan, K. E., & Bardi, A. (2010). Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(3), 235–237. Buchanan, K. E., & Bardi, A. (2010). Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(3), 235–237.
go back to reference Contri, D. (2011). Empathy and barriers to altruism. Peace and Conflict Review, 6(1), 1–13. Contri, D. (2011). Empathy and barriers to altruism. Peace and Conflict Review, 6(1), 1–13.
go back to reference Desbordes, G., Negi, L. T., Pace, T. W. W., Wallace, B. A., Raison, C. L., & Schwartz, E. L. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 292.  https://​doi.​org/​10.​3389/​fnhum.​2012.​00292. Desbordes, G., Negi, L. T., Pace, T. W. W., Wallace, B. A., Raison, C. L., & Schwartz, E. L. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 292.  https://​doi.​org/​10.​3389/​fnhum.​2012.​00292.
go back to reference Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189. Eberth, J., & Sedlmeier, P. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 3(3), 174–189.
go back to reference Ellis, A. R., Burchett, W. W., Harrar, S. W., & Bathke, A. C. (2017). Nonparametric inference for multivariate data: The R package npmv. Journal of Statistical Software, 76(1), 1–18. Ellis, A. R., Burchett, W. W., Harrar, S. W., & Bathke, A. C. (2017). Nonparametric inference for multivariate data: The R package npmv. Journal of Statistical Software, 76(1), 1–18.
go back to reference Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., & Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 716–721. Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Findler, M., Stowell, C., Smart, C., & Haglin, D. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(4), 716–721.
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (2009). The compassionate mind. Robinson. Gilbert, P. (2009). The compassionate mind. Robinson.
go back to reference Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83–91. Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83–91.
go back to reference Goodman, L. A., Pugach, M., Skolnik, A., & Smith, L. (2013). Poverty and mental health practice: Within and beyond the 50-minute hour. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(2), 182–190. Goodman, L. A., Pugach, M., Skolnik, A., & Smith, L. (2013). Poverty and mental health practice: Within and beyond the 50-minute hour. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(2), 182–190.
go back to reference Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., Berger, Z., Sleicher, D., Maron, D. D., & Shihab, H. M. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(3), 357–368. Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., Berger, Z., Sleicher, D., Maron, D. D., & Shihab, H. M. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(3), 357–368.
go back to reference Grossman, P., & Van Dam, N. T. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: Trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 219–239. Grossman, P., & Van Dam, N. T. (2011). Mindfulness, by any other name…: Trials and tribulations of sati in western psychology and science. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 219–239.
go back to reference Harmon-Jones, C., Bastian, B., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2016). The discrete emotions questionnaire: A new tool for measuring state self-reported emotions. PloS One, 11(8), e0159915. Harmon-Jones, C., Bastian, B., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2016). The discrete emotions questionnaire: A new tool for measuring state self-reported emotions. PloS One, 11(8), e0159915.
go back to reference Hölzel, B., & Ott, U. (2006). Relationships between meditation depth, absorption, meditation practice, and mindfulness: A latent variable approach. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 38(2), 179–200. Hölzel, B., & Ott, U. (2006). Relationships between meditation depth, absorption, meditation practice, and mindfulness: A latent variable approach. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 38(2), 179–200.
go back to reference Howells, A., Ivtzan, I., & Eiroa-Orosa, F. J. (2016). Putting the ‘app’in happiness: A randomised controlled trial of a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention to enhance wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 163–185. Howells, A., Ivtzan, I., & Eiroa-Orosa, F. J. (2016). Putting the ‘app’in happiness: A randomised controlled trial of a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention to enhance wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 163–185.
go back to reference Hwang, J. Y., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara brief compassion scale: An abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr’s compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56(4), 421–428. Hwang, J. Y., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara brief compassion scale: An abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr’s compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56(4), 421–428.
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 281–306. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(1), 281–306.
go back to reference Kemper, K. J., & Khirallah, M. (2015). Acute effects of online mind–body skills training on resilience, mindfulness, and empathy. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 20(4), 247–253. Kemper, K. J., & Khirallah, M. (2015). Acute effects of online mind–body skills training on resilience, mindfulness, and empathy. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 20(4), 247–253.
go back to reference Kiken, L. G., Garland, E. L., Bluth, K., Palsson, O. S., & Gaylord, S. A. (2015). From a state to a trait: Trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during intervention predict changes in trait mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 41–46. Kiken, L. G., Garland, E. L., Bluth, K., Palsson, O. S., & Gaylord, S. A. (2015). From a state to a trait: Trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during intervention predict changes in trait mindfulness. Personality and Individual Differences, 81, 41–46.
go back to reference Klimecki, O., Leiberg, S., Ricard, M., & Singer, T. (2013a). Differential pattern of functional brain plasticity after compassion and empathy training. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(6), 873–879. Klimecki, O., Leiberg, S., Ricard, M., & Singer, T. (2013a). Differential pattern of functional brain plasticity after compassion and empathy training. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9(6), 873–879.
go back to reference Klimecki, O., Ricard, M., & Singer, T. (2013). Empathy versus compassion: Lessons from 1st and 3rd person methods. In T. Singer & M. Bolz (Eds.), Compassion: Bridging practice and science (pp. 272–287). Max Planck Society. Klimecki, O., Ricard, M., & Singer, T. (2013). Empathy versus compassion: Lessons from 1st and 3rd person methods. In T. Singer & M. Bolz (Eds.), Compassion: Bridging practice and science (pp. 272–287). Max Planck Society.
go back to reference Laska, K. M., Gurman, A. S., & Wampold, B. E. (2014). Expanding the lens of evidence-based practice in psychotherapy: A common factors perspective. Psychotherapy, 51(4), 467–481. CrossRef Laska, K. M., Gurman, A. S., & Wampold, B. E. (2014). Expanding the lens of evidence-based practice in psychotherapy: A common factors perspective. Psychotherapy, 51(4), 467–481. CrossRef
go back to reference Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Shapiro, S., Carmody, J., Abbey, S., & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1467. Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., Shapiro, S., Carmody, J., Abbey, S., & Devins, G. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1445–1467.
go back to reference Layous, K., Nelson, S. K., Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). Kindness counts: Prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51380. CrossRef Layous, K., Nelson, S. K., Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2012). Kindness counts: Prompting prosocial behavior in preadolescents boosts peer acceptance and well-being. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51380. CrossRef
go back to reference Leaviss, J., & Uttley, L. (2015). Psychotherapeutic benefits of compassion-focused therapy: An early systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 45(5), 927–945. Leaviss, J., & Uttley, L. (2015). Psychotherapeutic benefits of compassion-focused therapy: An early systematic review. Psychological Medicine, 45(5), 927–945.
go back to reference Leppma, M., & Young, M. E. (2016). Loving-kindness meditation and empathy: A wellness group intervention for counseling students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(3), 297–305. CrossRef Leppma, M., & Young, M. E. (2016). Loving-kindness meditation and empathy: A wellness group intervention for counseling students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(3), 297–305. CrossRef
go back to reference Luberto, C. M., Shinday, N., Song, R., Philpotts, L. L., Park, E. R., Fricchione, G. L., & Yeh, G. Y. (2018). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of meditation on empathy, compassion, and prosocial behaviors. Mindfulness, 9(3), 708–724. Luberto, C. M., Shinday, N., Song, R., Philpotts, L. L., Park, E. R., Fricchione, G. L., & Yeh, G. Y. (2018). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of meditation on empathy, compassion, and prosocial behaviors. Mindfulness, 9(3), 708–724.
go back to reference McIntyre-Mills, J. (2010). Wellbeing, mindfulness and the global commons. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17(7–8), 47–72. McIntyre-Mills, J. (2010). Wellbeing, mindfulness and the global commons. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17(7–8), 47–72.
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28–44. CrossRef Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 28–44. CrossRef
go back to reference Ortner, C. N., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 271–283. CrossRef Ortner, C. N., Kilner, S. J., & Zelazo, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31(4), 271–283. CrossRef
go back to reference Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. CrossRef Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903. CrossRef
go back to reference Raab, K. (2014). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: A review of the literature. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20(3), 95–108. CrossRef Raab, K. (2014). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: A review of the literature. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20(3), 95–108. CrossRef
go back to reference Raffone, A., Marzetti, L., Del Gratta, C., Perrucci, M. G., Romani, G. L., & Pizzella, V. (2019). Toward a brain theory of meditation. In S. Waxman (Ed.), Progress in brain research. (Vol. 244, pp. 207–232). Elsevier. Raffone, A., Marzetti, L., Del Gratta, C., Perrucci, M. G., Romani, G. L., & Pizzella, V. (2019). Toward a brain theory of meditation. In S. Waxman (Ed.), Progress in brain research. (Vol. 244, pp. 207–232). Elsevier.
go back to reference Schuling, R., Huijbers, M. J., van Ravesteijn, H., Donders, R., Kuyken, W., & Speckens, A. E. (2016). A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial into the effectiveness of mindfulness-based compassionate living (MBCL) compared to treatment-as-usual in recurrent depression: trial design and protocol. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 50, 77–83. Schuling, R., Huijbers, M. J., van Ravesteijn, H., Donders, R., Kuyken, W., & Speckens, A. E. (2016). A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial into the effectiveness of mindfulness-based compassionate living (MBCL) compared to treatment-as-usual in recurrent depression: trial design and protocol. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 50, 77–83.
go back to reference Schuling, R., Huijbers, M. J., van Ravesteijn, H., Donders, R., Cillessen, L., Kuyken, W., & Speckens, A. E. (2020). Recovery from recurrent depression: Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of mindfulness-based compassionate living compared with treatment-as-usual on depressive symptoms and its consolidation at longer term follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders, 273, 265–273. Schuling, R., Huijbers, M. J., van Ravesteijn, H., Donders, R., Cillessen, L., Kuyken, W., & Speckens, A. E. (2020). Recovery from recurrent depression: Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of mindfulness-based compassionate living compared with treatment-as-usual on depressive symptoms and its consolidation at longer term follow-up. Journal of Affective Disorders, 273, 265–273.
go back to reference Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1139–1171. CrossRef Sedlmeier, P., Eberth, J., Schwarz, M., Zimmermann, D., Haarig, F., Jaeger, S., & Kunze, S. (2012). The psychological effects of meditation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1139–1171. CrossRef
go back to reference Segal, Z. V., & Teasdale, J. (2018). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. Guilford Publications. Segal, Z. V., & Teasdale, J. (2018). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. Guilford Publications.
go back to reference Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599. CrossRef Shapiro, S. L., Schwartz, G. E., & Bonner, G. (1998). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21(6), 581–599. CrossRef
go back to reference Shen, L. (2010). On a scale of state empathy during message processing. Western Journal of Communication, 74(5), 504–524. CrossRef Shen, L. (2010). On a scale of state empathy during message processing. Western Journal of Communication, 74(5), 504–524. CrossRef
go back to reference Stevens, J. P. (2012). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Routledge. Stevens, J. P. (2012). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Routledge.
go back to reference Taylor, V. A., Grant, J., Daneault, V., Scavone, G., Breton, E., Roffe-Vidal, S., Courtemanche, J., Lavarenne, A. S., & Beauregard, M. (2011). Impact of mindfulness on the neural responses to emotional pictures in experienced and beginner meditators. NeuroImage, 57(4), 1524–1533. Taylor, V. A., Grant, J., Daneault, V., Scavone, G., Breton, E., Roffe-Vidal, S., Courtemanche, J., Lavarenne, A. S., & Beauregard, M. (2011). Impact of mindfulness on the neural responses to emotional pictures in experienced and beginner meditators. NeuroImage, 57(4), 1524–1533.
go back to reference Williams, J. M. G., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Mindfulness: Diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins, and multiple applications at the intersection of science and dharma. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(01), 1–18. CrossRef Williams, J. M. G., & Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Mindfulness: Diverse perspectives on its meaning, origins, and multiple applications at the intersection of science and dharma. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(01), 1–18. CrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, A. C., Mackintosh, K., Power, K., & Chan, S. W. (2019). Effectiveness of self-compassion related therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 10(6), 979–995. Wilson, A. C., Mackintosh, K., Power, K., & Chan, S. W. (2019). Effectiveness of self-compassion related therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 10(6), 979–995.
Metagegevens
Titel
The Effect of Mindfulness and Compassion Meditation on State Empathy and Emotion
Auteurs
Jesse Martin-Allan
Peter Leeson
William Lovegrove
Publicatiedatum
12-05-2021
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 7/2021
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-021-01639-z