Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00561-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
A subtype of the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis for children 6 years and younger (PTSD-6Y) was introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). This study utilized confirmatory factor analytic techniques to evaluate the proposed DSM-5 PTSD-6Y factor structure and criterion and convergent validity against competing models. Data for N = 284 (3–6 years) trauma-exposed young children living in New Orleans were recruited following a range of traumas, including medical emergencies, exposure to Hurricane Katrina and repeated exposure to domestic violence. The model was compared to DSM-IV, a 4-factor ‘dysphoria’ model that groups symptoms also associated with anxiety and depression, and alternate 1- and 2- factor models. Convergent validity was established against the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Criterion related validity was established by comparing each model to a categorical rating of impairment. The Dysphoria and PTSD-6Y models offered the better accounts of symptom structure, although neither satisfied minimum requirements for a good fitting model. These two models also only showed small levels of convergence with CBCL dimensions. The 1-factor model offered the most compelling balance of sensitivity and specificity, with the 2-factor model and the Dysphoria model following closely behind. These CFA results do not support the symptom clusters proposed within the DSM-5 for PTSD-6Y. Although a 4-factor Dysphoria model offers a better overall account of clustering patterns (relative to alternate models), alongside acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detecting clinical impairment, it also falls short of being an adequate model in this younger age group.
ESM 1 (DOC 83 kb)10802_2019_561_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
Anthony, J. L., Lonigan, C. J., & Hecht, S. A. (1999). Dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in children exposed to disaster: results from confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 326–336. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843x.108.2.326. CrossRef
Ayer, L. A., Cisler, J. M., Danielson, C. K., Amstadter, A. B., Saunders, B. E., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2011). Adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder: an examination of factor structure reliability in two national samples. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 411–421. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.11.004. CrossRef
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino: Multivariate software Inc.
Bentler, P. M. (2007). On tests and indices for evaluating structural models. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 825–829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.024. CrossRef
Boyes, M. E., Cluver, L. D., & Gardner, F. (2012). Psychometric properties of the child PTSD checklist in a community sample of South African children and adolescents. PLoS One, 7, 8, e46905. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046905. CrossRef
Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., Liu, Z., Liu, Y., & Dyregrov, A. (2012). Structure of the Children's revised impact of event scale (CRIES) with children and adolescents exposed to debris flood. PLoS One, 7, 6, e41741. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0041741. CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
De Young, A. C., Kenardy, J. A., & Cobham, V. E. (2011). Diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 375–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.563474. CrossRef
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC.
Egger, H. L., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., Potts, E., Walter, B. K., & Angold, A. (2006). Test-retest reliability of the preschool age psychiatric assessment (PAPA). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 538–549. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000205705.71194.b8. CrossRef
Elhai, J. D., Ford, J. D., Ruggiero, K. J., & Frueh, B. C. (2009). Diagnostic alterations for post-traumatic stress disorder: examining data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and National Survey of adolescents. Psychological Medicine, 39, 1957–1966. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291709005819. CrossRef
Feldman, R., & Vengrober, A. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder in infants and young children exposed to war-related trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 645–658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.03.001. CrossRef
Ford, J. D., Elhai, J. D., Ruggiero, K. J., & Frueh, B. C. (2009). Refining posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis: evaluation of symptom criteria with the National Survey of adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70, 748–755. CrossRef
Giannopoulou, I., Smith, P., Ecker, C., Strouthos, M., Dikaiakou, A., & Yule, W. (2006). Factor structure of the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) with children exposed to earthquake. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1027–1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.002
Hair, J. F. J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hiller, R., Meiser-Stedman, R., Fearon, R., Lobo, S., McKinnon, A., Fraser, A., & Halligan, S. L. (2019). Changes in the prevalence and symptom severity of child posttraumatic stress disorder in the year following trauma - a meta-analytic study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12566.
Insel, T., Cuthbert, B., Garvey, M., Heinssen, R., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K., et al. (2010). Research domain criteria (RDoC): Toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 748–751. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09091379. CrossRef
Kassam-Adams, N., Marsac, M. L., & Cirilli, C. (2010). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom structure in injured children: functional impairment and depression symptoms in a confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 616–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2010.02.011.
Kassam-Adams, N., Palmieri, P. A., Rork, K., Delahanty, D. L., Kenardy, J., Kohser, K. L., et al. (2012). Acute stress symptoms in children: results from an international data archive. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 812–820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.05.013. CrossRef
Kendler, K. S. (2016). The phenomenology of major depression and the representativeness and nature of DSM criteria. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 771–780. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15121509. CrossRef
Kirk, S. A. (2004). Are children's DSM diagnoses accurate. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4, 255–270. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
Lee, S. Y., Poon, W. Y., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). A two-stage estimation of structural equation models with continuous and polytomous variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 48, 339–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1995.tb01067.x. CrossRef
Liu, L. Y., Wang, L., Cao, C. Q., Qing, Y. L., & Armour, C. (2016). Testing the dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a nonclinical trauma-exposed adolescent sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 204–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12462. CrossRef
McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: a prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 544–554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.003. CrossRef
Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Glucksman, E., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2007). Parent and child agreement for acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychopathology in a prospective study of children and adolescents exposed to single-event trauma. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9068-1. CrossRef
Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Glucksman, E., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2008). The posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis in preschool- and elementary school-age children exposed to motor vehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1326–1337. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07081282. CrossRef
Sack, W. H., Seeley, J. R., & Clarke, G. N. (1997). Does PTSD transcend cultural barriers? A study from the Khmer adolescent refugee project. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199701000-00017. CrossRef
Salmon, K., & Bryant, R. A. (2002). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: the influence of developmental factors. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 163–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(01)00086-1. CrossRef
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Scheeringa, M. S. (2008). Developmental considerations for diagnosing PTSD and acute stress disorder in preschool and school-age children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1237–1239. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08070974. CrossRef
Scheeringa, M. S., Zeanah, C. H., Drell, M. J., & Larrieu, J. A. (1995). Two approaches to the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder in infancy and early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 191–200. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199502000-00014 7896652. CrossRef
Scheeringa, M. S., Peebles, C. D., Cook, C. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2001). Toward establishing procedural, criterion, and discriminant validity for PTSD in early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 52–60. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200101000-00016. CrossRef
Scheeringa, M., Anders, T., Boris, N., Carter, A., Chatoor-Koch, I., Egger, H., et al. (2003a). Research diagnostic criteria for infants and preschool children: The process and empirical support. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1504–1512. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000091504.46853.0a. CrossRef
Scheeringa, M., Zeanah, C. H., Myers, L., & Putnam, F. W. (2003b). New findings on alternative criteria for PTSD in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 561–570. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000046822.95464.14. CrossRef
Scheeringa, M. S., Zeanah, C. H., Myers, L., & Putnam, F. W. (2005). Predictive validity in a prospective follow-up of PTSD in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 899–906. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000169013.81536.71. CrossRef
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23–74.
Seligman, L. D., Ollendick, T. H., Langley, A. K., & Baldacci, H. B. (2004). The utility of measures of child and adolescent anxiety: a meta-analytic review of the revised Children's manifest anxiety scale, the state-trait anxiety inventory for children, and the child behavior checklist. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33, 557–565. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3303_13. CrossRef
Sumner, J. A., Pietrzak, R. H., Danielson, C. K., Adams, Z. W., & Ruggiero, K. J. (2014). Elucidating dimensions of posttraumatic stress symptoms and their functional correlates in disaster-exposed adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 59, 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.09.003. CrossRef
Wang, L., Li, Z. Q., Shi, Z. B. A., Zhang, Y. Q., & Shen, J. H. (2010). Factor structure of acute stress disorder symptoms in Chinese earthquake victims: a confirmatory factor analysis of the acute stress disorder scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 798–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.01.027. CrossRef
Wang, R. C., Wang, L., Li, Z. Q., Cao, C. Q., Shi, Z. B., & Zhang, J. X. (2013). Latent structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in an adolescent sample one month after an earthquake. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 717–725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.05.008. CrossRef
Wang, L., Zhang, L. M., Armour, C., Cao, C. Q., Qing, Y. L., Zhang, J. X., et al. (2015). Assessing the underlying dimensionality of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in Chinese adolescents surviving the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 31, 90–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.02.006. CrossRef
- The Dimensionality of Proposed DSM-5 PTSD Symptoms in Trauma-Exposed Young Children
Michael S. Scheeringa
Alexandra De Young
- Springer US
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
An official publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
Print ISSN: 0091-0627
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2835