Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Ethnic/racial self-labeling represents one’s knowledge of and preference for ethnic/racial group membership, which is related to, but distinguishable from, ethnic/racial identity. This study examined the development of ethnic/racial self-labeling over time by including the concept of elaboration among a diverse sample of 297 adolescents (Time 1 mean age 14.75, 67% female, 37.4% Asian or Asian American, 10.4% Black, African American, or West Indian, 23.2% Hispanic or Latinx, 24.2% White, 4.4% other). Growth mixture modeling revealed two distinct patterns—low and high self-labeling elaboration from freshman to sophomore year of high school. Based on logistic regression analyses, the level of self-labeling elaboration was generally low among the adolescents who were foreign-born, reported low levels of ethnic/racial identity exploration, or attended highly diverse schools. We also found a person-by-context interaction where the impact of school diversity varied for foreign-born and native-born adolescents (b = 12.81, SE = 6.30, p < 0.05) and by the level of ethnic/racial identity commitment (b = 14.32, SE = 6.65, p < 0.05). These findings suggest varying patterns in ethnic/racial self-labeling elaboration among adolescents from diverse backgrounds and their linkage to individual and contextual factors.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317–332. CrossRef
Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., & McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004). An organizing framework for collective identity: Articulation and significance of multidimensionality. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 80–114. CrossRef
Benner, A. D., & Crosnoe, R. (2011). The racial/ethnic composition of elementary schools and young children’s academic and socioemotional functioning. American Educational Research Journal, 48, 621–646. CrossRef
Berry, J. W. (1980). Social and cultural change. In H. C. Triandis & R. Breslin (Eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 5 (pp. 211–279). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5–34.
Branscombe, N. R., Deaux, K., & Lerner, M. S. (1985). Individual differences and the influence of context on categorization and prejudice. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 15, 25–35.
Brewer, M. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 475–482. CrossRef
Brewer, M. (1999). The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love or outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55, 429–444. CrossRef
Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. (1996). Who is this “we”? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 83–93. CrossRef
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Byrd, C. M., & Chavous, T. M. (2009). Racial identity and academic achievement in the neighborhood context: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 544–559. CrossRef
Campbell, J. D., Chew, B., & Scratchley, L. S. (1991). Cognitive and emotional reactions to daily events: the effects of self‐esteem and self‐complexity. Journal of Personality, 59, 473–505. CrossRef
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). Control processes and self-organization as complementary principles underlying behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 304–315. CrossRef
Chavous, T. M., Harris, A., Rivas, D., Helaire, L., & Green, L. (2004). Racial stereotypes and gender in context: African Americans at predominantly Black and predominantly White Colleges. Sex Roles, 51, 1–16. CrossRef
Cross, W. E., Parham, T. A., & Helms, J. E. (2001). The stages of Black identity development: Nigrescence models. In R. L. Jones (Ed.), Black Psychology (3rd ed.). (pp. 319–338). Berkeley, CA: Cobb and Henry.
Doan, G. O., & Stephen, C. W. (2006). The functions of ethnic identity: A New Mexico Hispanic sample. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 229–241. CrossRef
Donahue, E. M., Robins, R. W., Roberts, B. W., & John, O. P. (1993). The divided self: concurrent and longitudinal effects of psychological adjustment and social roles on self-concept differentiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 834–846. CrossRef
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York, NY: Norton.
Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 243–251. CrossRef
Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (2001). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. In M. A. Hogg (Ed.), Intergroup relations: Essential readings (Key readings in social psychology) (pp. 254–265). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Fuligni, A. J., Kiang, L., Witkow, M. R., & Baldelomar, O. (2008). Stability and change in ethnic labeling among adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant families. Child Development, 79, 944–956. CrossRef
Fuligni, A. J., Witkow, M., & Garcia, C. (2005). Ethnic identity and academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 41, 799–811. CrossRef
Harris, D. R., & Sim, J. J. (2002). Who is multiracial? Assessing the complexity of lived race. American Sociological Review, 67, 614–627. CrossRef
Jung, T., & Wickrama, K. A. S. (2008). An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 302–317. CrossRef
Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17, 393–400. CrossRef
Kiang, L. (2008). Ethnic self-labeling in young American adults from Chinese backgrounds. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 97–111. CrossRef
Kiang, L., & Harter, S. (2008). Do pieces of the puzzle fit? Integrated/fragmented selves in biculturally-identified Chinese Americans. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1657–1662. CrossRef
Kiang, L., Perreira, K. M., & Fuligni, A. J. (2011). Ethnic label use in adolescents from traditional and non-traditional immigrant communities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 719–729. CrossRef
Kiang, L., & Witkow, M. R. (2018). Identifying as American among Adolescents from Asian Backgrounds. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(1), 64–76. CrossRef
Kiang, L., Witkow, M. R., Baldelomar, O. A., & Fuligni, A. J. (2010). Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 683–693. CrossRef
Kiang, L., Yip, T., & Fuligni, A. J. (2008). Multiple social identities and adjustment in young adults from ethnically diverse backgrounds. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 643–670. CrossRef
Kwon, J., & Nayakankuppam, D. (2015). Strength without elaboration: The role of implicit self-theories in forming and accessing attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 42, 316–339.
Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 663–676. CrossRef
Lo, Y., Mendell, N., & Rubin, D. B. (2001). Testing the number of components in a normal mixture. Biometrika, 88, 767–778. CrossRef
Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of the ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551–558. CrossRef
Malott, K. M. (2009). Investigation of Ethnic Self‐Labeling in the Latina Population: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 179–185. CrossRef
Masuoka, N. (2006). Together they become one; Examining the predictors of panethnic group consciousness maong Asian Americans and Latinos. Social Science Quarterly, 87, 993–1011. CrossRef
Muthen, B. O. (2006). The potential of growth mixture modeling. Infant and Child Development, 15(6), 623–625. CrossRef
Muthen, L. K. & Muthen, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus User’s Guide. (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
Nishina, A., Bellmore, A., Witkow, M., & Nylund-Gibson, K. (2010). Longitudinal consistency of adolescent ethnic identification across varying school ethnic contexts. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1389–1401. CrossRef
Nishina, A., Bellmore, A., Witkow, M. R., Nylund-Gibson, K., & Graham, S. (2018). Mismatches in self-reported and meta-perceived ethnic identification across the high school years. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(1), 51–63. CrossRef
Pahl, K., & Way, N. (2006). Longitudinal trajectories of ethnic identity among urban Black and Latino adolescents. Child Development, 77, 1403–1415. CrossRef
Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). Message elaboration versus peripheral cues. Communication and persuasion (pp. 141–172). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156–176. CrossRef
Phinney, J. S. (1993). A three-stage model of ethnic identity development in adolescence. In M. E. Bernal (Ed.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 61–79). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Phinney, J. S. (2003). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In K. M. Chun, P. B. Organista & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, D. C: American Psychological Association.
Phinney, J. S. (2006). Ethnic identity exploration in emerging adulthood. In J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Coming of age in the 21st century: The lives and contexts of emerging adults (pp. 117–134). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Phinney, J. S., & Alipuria, L. L. (1996). At the interface of cultures: Multiethnic/multiracial high school and college students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 139–158. CrossRef
Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well‐being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 493–510. CrossRef
Phinney, J. S., & Ong, A. D. (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 271–281. CrossRef
Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. New York, NY: University of California Press.
Rjosk, C., Richter, D., Lüdtke, O., & Eccles, J. S. (2017). Ethnic composition and heterogeneity in the classroom: Their measurement and relationship with student outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1188–1204. CrossRef
Ruble, D. N., Alvarez, J., Bachman, M., Cameron, J., Fuligni, A. J., & Garcia Coll, C., et al. (2004). The development of a sense of “we”; The emergence and implications of children’s collective identity. In M. Bennett & F. Sani (Eds.), The development of the social self. Eas Sussex, England: Psychology Press.
Schwartz, S. J., Unger, J. B., Zamboanga, B. L., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65, 237–251. CrossRef
Sclove, S. L. (1987). Application of model-selection criteria to some problems in multivariate analysis. Psychometrika, 52, 333–343. CrossRef
Speight, S. L., Vera, E. M., & Derrickson, K. B. (1996). Racial self-designation, racial identity, and self-esteem revisited. Journal of Black Psychloogy, 22, 37–52. CrossRef
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Wiley and Sons.
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive.
Tatum, B. D. (2004). Family life and school experience: Factors in the racial identity development of Black youth in White communities. Journal of Social Issues, 60, 117–135. CrossRef
Tovar, J., & Feliciano, C. (2009). “Not Mexican-American, but Mexican”: Shifting ethnic self-identifications among children of Mexican immigrants. Latino Studies, 7, 197–221. CrossRef
Tseng, V., & Fuligni, A. J. (2000). Parent‐Adolescent language use and relationships among immigrant families with East Asian, Filipino, and Latin American backgrounds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 465–476. CrossRef
Umaña‐Taylor, A. J., Quintana, S. M., Lee, R. M., Cross, W. E., Rivas‐Drake, D., Schwartz, S. J., & Seaton, E. (2014). Ethnic and racial identity during adolescence and into young adulthood: An integrated conceptualization. Child Development, 85, 21–39. CrossRef
Vallacher, R. R., Nowak, A., Froehlich, M., & Rockloff, M. (2002). The dynamics of self-evaluation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 370–379. CrossRef
Wang, Y., Douglass, S., & Yip, T. (2017). Longitudinal relations between ethnic/racial identity process and content: Exploration, commitment, and salience among diverse adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 53, 2154–2169. CrossRef
Yip, T., Douglass, S., & Shelton, J. N. (2013). Daily intragroup contact in diverse settings: Implications for Asian adolescents’ ethnic identity. Child Development, 84, 1425–1441. CrossRef
Yip, T., Seaton, E. K., & Sellers, R. M. (2010). Interracial and intraracial contact, school-level diversity, and change in racial identity status among African American adolescents. Child Development, 81, 1431–1444. CrossRef
- The Development of Ethnic/Racial Self-Labeling: Individual Differences in Context
Yuen Mi Cheon
Sara Douglass Bayless
- Springer US