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22-08-2015 | Uitgave 3/2016

Quality of Life Research 3/2016

The development of a questionnaire measure of diabetes-related distress in Chinese-speaking patients: the Diabetes-Related Distress Questionnaire (DRDQ)

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 3/2016
Huey-Fen Wang, Neng-Chun Yu, Wayne H-H Sheu, Mei Chang Yeh
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The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-015-1106-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



To develop and evaluate the reliability and validity of a Diabetes-Related Distress Questionnaire for Chinese-speaking patients with diabetes.


The Diabetes-Related Distress Questionnaire (DRDQ) included 11 quality-of-life questions translated from a Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs study and four native items developed by researchers based on patients’ experiences. A sample of 981 Chinese-speaking patients with diabetes in Taiwan was invited to complete the questionnaire.


A minimum of 4.2 % of patients used each response option for each item. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor structure, representing treatment-related distress (factor 1) and progression-related distress (factor 2). The mean loading of items on their corresponding factor was high (0.60), while the mean loading on the other factor was low (0.10). A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a single structure of the DRDQ (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.063, comparative fit index = 0.93). The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.89 for the DRDQ scale, 0.87 for the factor 1, and 0.68 for the factor 2. As expected, people with insulin-treated and HbA1c > 7 % reported significantly greater negative scores than their counterparts on the total score and all items of the DRDQ, with the exception of item 2. A moderate effect size was demonstrated between insulin known groups (ranging from 0.14 to 0.46) and between HbA1c known groups (ranging from 0.08 to 0.87).


The DRDQ is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used to assess diabetes-related distress in Chinese-speaking patients in Taiwan.

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