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30-09-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 1/2021

Mindfulness 1/2021

The Development and Validation of the State Self-Compassion Scale (Long- and Short Form)

Tijdschrift:
Mindfulness > Uitgave 1/2021
Auteurs:
Kristin D. Neff, István Tóth-Király, Marissa C. Knox, Ashley Kuchar, Oliver Davidson
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12671-020-01505-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this research was to create two state measures of self-compassion based on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): an 18-item State Self-Compassion Scale-Long form (SSCS-L) that could be used to measure the six components of self-compassion, and a six-item State Self-Compassion Scale-Short form (SSCS-S) that could be used as a measure of global state self-compassion.

Methods

Study 1 (N = 588) used a community sample to select items for the SSCS-L and SSCS-S. Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM), and bifactor modeling were used to analyze the factor structure of the SSCS-L and SSCS-S. Predictive validity was assessed by examining associations with positive and negative affect. Study 2 (N = 411) used a student sample to examine the psychometric properties of the SSCS-L and SSCS-S after a self-compassion mindstate induction (SCMI) to determine if its factor structure would remain unchanged after manipulation. Study 3 (N = 139) examined the psychometric properties of the SSCS-S alone.

Results

The SSCS-L had good psychometric properties and SSCS-S was also adequate. A bifactor-ESEM representation (with one global factor and six components) was supported for the SSCS-L, and a single factor was supported for the SSCS-S. Both scales were reliable. Psychometric properties were unchanged after the experimental manipulation of self-compassion. A total state self-compassion score and subscale scores were associated with positive and negative affect in the expected directions.

Conclusions

The SSCS-L and SSCS-S appear to be valid measures of state self-compassion.

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