Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the youth self- report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions (pp. 75–87). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2006). Amos (Version 7.0) [Computer Program]. Chicago: SPSS. Smallwaters Corporation.
Attar, B., Guerra, N., & Tolan, P. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391–400. CrossRef
Boyes, M. E., Hasking, P. A., & Martin, G. (2015). Adverse life experience and psychological distress in adolescence: Moderating and mediating effects of emotion regulation and rumination. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. doi: 10.1002/smi.2635.
Carlson, G. A., & Grant, K. E. (2008). The roles of stress and coping in explaining gender differences in risk for psychopathology among African American urban adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 375–404. CrossRef
Cassidy, E., & Stevenson, H. (2005). They wear the mask: Hypervulnerability and hypermasculine aggression among African American males in an urban remedial disciplinary school. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 11, 53–74. CrossRef
Chandra, A., & Batada, A. (2006). Exploring stress and coping among urban African American adolescents: The shifting lens study. Preventing Chronic Disease Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 3, 1–10.
Chicago Police (2012). Chicago police news desk statistical reports. Retrieved from. https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/News/Statistical%20Reports.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple correlation/regression analysis for the behavioral sciences. UK: Taylor & Francis.
Clarke, A. T. (2006). Coping with interpersonal stress and psychosocial health among children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(1), 11–24. CrossRef
Compas, B. E., Worsham, N. L., & Ey, S. (1992). Conceptual and developmental issues in children’s coping with stress. In A. M. La Greca, L. J. Siegel, J. L. Wallander, & E. C. Walker (Eds.), Stress and coping in child health (pp. 7–24). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Coyle, L. D., & Vera, E. M. (2013). Uncontrollable stress, coping and subjective well-being in urban adolescents. Journal of Youth Studies, 16(3), 391–403. CrossRef
Dawson, J. F. (2014). Moderation in management research: What, why, when and how. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29, 1–19. CrossRef
Enders, C. K., & Bandalos, D. L. (2001). The relative performance of full information maximum likelihood estimation for missing data in structural equation models. Structural Equation Modeling, 8(3), 430–457. CrossRef
Farahmand, F., Duffy, S. N., Tailor, M., DuBois, D. L., Lyon, A., Grant, K. E., et al. (2012). Community-based mental health and behavioral programs for low-income, urban youth: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19, 195–215.
Farahmand, F. K., Grant, K. E., Polo, A., Duffy, S. N., & Dubois, D. L. (2011). School-based mental health programs for low-income urban youth: A systematic and meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 18, 372–390.
Farrell, A. D., Mays, S., Bettencourt, A., Erwin, E. H., Vulin-Reynolds, M., & Allison, K. W. (2010). Environmental influences on fighting versus nonviolent behavior in peer situations: A qualitative study with urban African American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 46, 19–35. doi: 10.1007/s10464-010-9331-z. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Foster, J. D., Kuperminc, G. P., & Price, A. W. (2004). Gender differences in post-traumatic stress and related symptoms among inner-city minority youth exposed to community violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 59–69. CrossRef
Fowler, P. J., Tompsett, C. J., Braciszewski, J. M., Jacques-Tiura, J. J., & Baltes, B. B. (2009). Community violence: A meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 227–259. doi: 10.1017/S0954579409000145. CrossRefPubMed
Gonzales, N. A., Tein, J. Y., Sandler, I. N., & Friedman, R. J. (2001). On the limits of coping: Interaction between stress and coping for inner-city adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 372–395. CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
James, S. A., Keenan, N. L., Strogatz, D. S., Browning, S. R., & Garrett, J. M. (1992). Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and blood pressure in black adults: The Pitt County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 135, 59–67. PubMed
James, S. A., Strogatz, D. S., Wing, S. B., & Ramsey, D. L. (1987). Socioeconomic status John Henryism, and hypertension in blacks and whites. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 664–673. PubMed
Katz, B. N., Esparza, N. P., Carter, J. S., Grant, K. E., & Meyerson, D. A. (2012). Intervening processes in the relation between neighborhood characteristics and psychological symptoms in urban youth. Journal of Early Adolescence, 32, 650–680. CrossRef
Kraag, G., Zeegers, M. P., Kok, G., Hosman, C., & Abu-Saad, H. H. (2006). School programs targeting stress management in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 449–472. CrossRef
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1991). The concept of coping. In A. Monat, R. S. Lazarus, A. Monat, & R. S. Lazarus (Eds.), Stress and coping: An anthology (3rd ed., pp. 189–206). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Plybon, L. E., & Kliewer, W. (2001). Neighborhood types and externalizing behavior in urbanschool-age children: Tests of direct, mediated, and moderated effects. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 10, 419–437. CrossRef
Rescorla, L., Achenbach, T., Ginzburg, S., Ivanova, M., Dumenci, L., & Almqvist, F. (2007). Consistency of teacher reported problems for students in 21 countries. School Psychology Review, 36, 91–110.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. (1990). Checklist of child distress symptoms: Parent report. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
Rosario, M., Salzinger, S., Feldman, R. S., & Ng-Mak, D. S. (2003). Community violence exposure and delinquent behaviors among youth: The moderating role of coping. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 489–512. CrossRef
Rosenthal, B. S. (2000). Exposure to community violence in adolescence: Trauma symptoms. Adolescence, 35, 271–284. PubMed
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.: Mahwah, NJ.
Steiger, J. H., Shapiro, A., & Browne, M. W. (1985). On the asymptotic distribution of sequential Chi square statistics. Psychometrika, 50, 253–264. CrossRef
Wadsworth, M. E., & Compas, B. E. (2002). Coping with family conflict and economic strain: The adolescent perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(2), 243–274. CrossRef
Wagstaff, A., Lewis, J., Grant, K. E., Thomas, K. J., Carlson, G. C., Gipson, P. Y., et al. (2016). Specific processes linking economic stressors, exposure to community violence, and psychological symptoms affecting low- income urban youth. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty
Kristin J. Carothers
Jessica A. Arizaga
Jocelyn Smith Carter
Kathryn E. Grant
- Springer US