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28-11-2019 | Uitgave 3/2020 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 3/2020

The cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy versus surgery for symptomatic adenoid hypertrophy by a Markov model

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 3/2020
Han Xiao, Jinqiang Huang, Weifeng Liu, Zihao Dai, Sui Peng, Zhenwei Peng, Ruiming Liang, Renqiang Ma, Yihui Wen, Jian Li, Weiping Wen
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-019-02374-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Han Xiao and Jinqiang Huang have contributed equally to this work.

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Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is common among young children. Adenoid-based surgery and drug therapy could be applied for symptomatic AH patients, yet the treatment decision is difficult to make due to the diverse cost and efficacy between these two treatments.


A Markov simulation model was designed to estimate the cost-effectiveness (CE) of the adenoid-based surgery and the drug therapy for symptomatic AH patients. Transition probabilities, costs and utilities were extracted from early researches and expert opinions. Simulations using two set of parameter inputs for China and the USA were performed. Primary outcome was cost per QALY gained over a 6-year period. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were also conducted.


The utility for the surgery group and the drug group were 4.10 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and 3.58 QALYs, respectively. The cost of the surgery group was more than that of the drug group using model parameters specific to China ($1069.0 vs. $753.7) but was less for the USA ($1994.4 vs. $3977.7). Surgery was dominant over drug therapy when US specific parameters were used. Surgery group had an ICER of $604.0 per QALY when parameters specific to China was used.


Surgery is cost-effective in the simulations for both China and the USA at WTP thresholds of $9633.1 and $62,517.5, respectively.

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