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07-12-2020 | Original Article | Uitgave 4/2021 Open Access

Netherlands Heart Journal 4/2021

The Coronary Sinus Reducer; 5-year Dutch experience

Netherlands Heart Journal > Uitgave 4/2021
M. J. M. Silvis, M. Dekker, C. Zivelonghi, P. Agostoni, P. R. Stella, P. A. Doevendans, D. P. V. de Kleijn, J. P. van Kuijk, G. E. Leenders, L. Timmers
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12471-020-01525-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors M.J.M. Silvis and M. Dekker contributed equally to this manuscript.



Refractory angina is a growing and major health-care problem affecting millions of patients with coronary artery disease worldwide. The Coronary Sinus Reducer (CSR) is a device that may be considered for the relief of symptoms of refractory angina. It causes increased venous pressure leading to a dilatation of arterioles and reduced arterial vascular resistance in the sub-endocardium. This study describes the 5‑year Dutch experience regarding safety and efficacy of the CSR.


One hundred and thirty-two patients with refractory angina were treated with the CSR. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study was Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class improvement between baseline and 6‑month follow-up. The primary safety endpoint was successful CSR implantation in the absence of any device-related events.


Eighty-five patients (67%) showed improvement of at least 1 CCS class and 43 patients (34%) of at least 2 classes. Mean CCS class improved from 3.17 ± 0.61 to 2.12 ± 1.07 after implantation (P < 0.001). The CSR was successfully implanted in 99% of the patients and only minor complications during implantation were reported.


The CSR is a simple, safe, and effective option for most patients with refractory angina. However, approximately thirty percent of the patients showed no benefit after implantation. Future studies should focus on the exact underlying mechanisms of action and reasons for non-response to better identify patients that could benefit most from this therapy.

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Netherlands Heart Journal

Het Netherlands Heart Journal wordt uitgegeven in samenwerking met de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Cardiologie en de Nederlandse Hartstichting. Het tijdschrift is Engelstalig en wordt gratis beschikbaa ...

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