Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Research consistently links adult and infant attachment styles, yet the means by which attachment is transmitted is relatively elusive. Recently, attention has been directed to the psychological underpinnings of caregiver sensitivity—originally thought to be the mechanism of transmission—as indicated by caregivers’ ability to keep in mind children’s mental states when interpreting children’s behavior, or reflective functioning. Unfortunately for researchers, extant measures of reflective functioning are time-consuming and require extensive observation and coding. A self-report measure could help facilitate the study and assessment of reflective functioning in research and clinical settings. This study investigated the relationship between parental reflective functioning and multiple aspects of the parent–child relationship, by using a new, self-report measure of reflective functioning. Participants were 79 caregivers (M age = 31.8 years) who completed self-report measures assessing reflective functioning, parent–child relationship characteristics, perceived rejection in early relationships, attachment anxiety and avoidance in current close relationships, depression, and substance use. The results indicated that reflective functioning is a strong predictor of parent–child relationship quality (i.e., parental involvement, communication, parent satisfaction, limit setting, and parental support), independent of other potential indicators. Findings support parental reflective functioning as a contributor to the quality of parent–child relationship and suggest that a parent’s capacity to reflect on the mental states of his or her child in parent–child interactions may provide a key target for interventions that aim to improve parent–child relationships.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Belsky, J., & Pasco Fearon, R. M. (2008). Precursors of attachment security. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (2nd ed., pp. 295–316). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Berlin, L. J., Zeanah, C. H., & Lieberman, A. F. (2008). Prevention and intervention programs for supporting early attachment security. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (2nd ed., pp. 745–761). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child’s ties to this mother. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 350. PubMed
Brown, R. L., & Rounds, L. A. (1995). Conjoint screening questionnaires for alcohol and other drug abuse: Criterion validity in a primary care practice. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 94(3), 135–140. PubMed
Butzer, B., & Campbell, L. (2008). Adult attachment, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction: A study of married couples. Personal Relationships, 15, 141–154. CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press.
Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Powell, B., & Marvin, R. (2005). The circle of security intervention: Differential diagnosis and differential treatment. In L. J. Berlin, Y. Ziv, L. M. Amaya-Jackson, & M. T. Greenberg (Eds.), Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy (pp. 127–151). New York: Guilford Press.
Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Moran, G. S., & Higgitt, A. C. (1991). The capacity for understanding mental states: The reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 12(3), 201–218. CrossRef
Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2005). Bridging the transmission gap: An end to an important mystery in attachment research? Attachment & Human Development, 7(3), 333–343. CrossRef
Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1998). Reflective functioning manual, version 5.0, for application to adult attachment interview. London: University College London.
George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1984). The adult attachment interview. Unpublished protocol (3rd ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California.
George, C., & Solomon, J. (1996). Representational models of relationships: Links between caregiving and attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17, 198–216. CrossRef
Gerard, A. B. (1994). Parent–Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI) manual. Los Angeles: WPS.
Grienenberger, J., Kelly, K., & Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother–infant affective communication, and infant attachment: Exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behavior in the intergenerational transmission of attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 299–311. CrossRef
Jackson, S. L. (2015). Predictive (relational) methods. In Research methods: A modular approach (3rd edn, pp. 129–172). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Khaleque, A., & Rohner, R. P. (2002). Perceived parental acceptance-rejection and psychological adjustment: A meta-analysis of cross-cultural and intracultural studies. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(1), 54–64. CrossRef
Luyten, P., Mayes, L. C., Sadler, L., Fonagy, P., Nicholls, S., Crowley, M., et al. (2009). The Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire-1 (PRFQ-1). Leuven: University of Leuven.
Main, M. (1990). Cross-cultural studies of attachment organization: Recent studies, changing methodologies, and the concept of conditional strategies. Human Development, 33, 48–61. CrossRef
Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Powell, B., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Marvin, B. (2013). The circle of security intervention: Enhancing attachment in early parent–child relationships. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Putnick, D. L., Bornstein, M. H., Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Deater-Deckard, K., Di Giunta, L., et al. (2012). Agreement in mother and father acceptance-rejection, warmth, and hostility/rejection/neglect of children across nine countries. Cross-Cultural Research, 46(3), 191–223. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Rohner, R. P., & Khaleque, A. (2005). Handbook for the study of parental acceptance and rejection. Storrs, CT: Rohner Research.
Rosenblum, K. L., McDonough, S. C., Sameroff, A. J., & Muzik, M. (2008). Reflection in thought and action: Maternal parenting reflectivity predicts mind-minded comments and interactive behavior. Infant Mental Health Journal, 29(4), 362–376. CrossRef
Rutherford, H. J., Booth, C. R., Luyten, P., Bridgett, D. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2015). Investigating the association between parental reflective functioning and distress tolerance in motherhood. Infant Behavior & Development, 40, 54–63. CrossRef
Rutherford, H. J., Goldberg, B., Luyten, P., Bridgett, D. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2013). Parental reflective functioning is associated with tolerance of infant distress but not general distress: Evidence for a specific relationship using a simulated baby paradigm. Infant Behavior & Development, 36, 635–641. CrossRef
Sadler, L. S., Slade, A., & Mayes, L. C. (2006). Minding the baby: A mentalization based parenting program. In J. G. Allen & P. Fonagy (Eds.), Handbook of mentalization-based treatment (pp. 271–288). Chichester: Wiley.
Sharp, C., & Fonagy, P. (2008). The parent’s capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent: Constructs, measures and implications for developmental psychopathology. Social Development, 17(3), 737–754. CrossRef
Slade, A. (2006). Reflective parenting programs: Theory and development. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 26, 640–657. CrossRef
Solomon, J., & George, C. (1996). Defining the caregiving system: Toward a theory of caregiving. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(3), 183–197. CrossRef
Thompson, R. A. (2008). Early attachment and later development: Familiar questions, new answers. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 78–101). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Weinfield, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (2008). Individual differences in infant–caregiver attachment: Conceptual and empirical aspects of security. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 78–101). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Wells, K. (2009). Substance abuse and child maltreatment. Pediatrics Clinics of North America, 56, 345–362. CrossRef
- The Association Between Reflective Functioning and Parent–Child Relationship Quality
Whitney L. Rostad
Daniel J. Whitaker
- Springer US