Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Several sessions of mindfulness practice can exert positive gains for child executive functions (EF); however, the evidence for effects of a mindfulness induction, on EF for adults, is mixed and this effect has not been tested in children. The immediate effect of an age appropriate 3-min mindfulness induction on EF of children aged 4–7 years was tested. Participants (N = 156) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness induction or dot-to-dot activity comparison group before completing four measures of EF. A composite score for EF was calculated from summed z scores of the four EF measures. A difference at baseline in behavioural difficulties between the mindfulness induction and comparison group meant that data was analysed using a hierarchical regression. The mindfulness induction resulted in higher average performance for the composite EF score (M = 0.12) compared to the comparison group (M = − 0.05). Behavioural difficulties significantly predicted 5.3% of the variance in EF performance but participation in the mindfulness or comparison induction did not significantly affect EF. The non-significant effect of a mindfulness induction to exert immediate effects on EF fits within broader evidence reporting mixed effects when similar experimental designs have been used with adults. The findings are discussed with consideration of the extent to which methodological differences may account for these mixed effects and how mindfulness inductions fit within broader theoretical and empirical understanding of the effects of mindfulness on EF.
Beck, D. M., Schaefer, C., Pang, K., & Carlson, S. M. (2011). Executive function in preschool children: test–retest reliability. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12(2), 169–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2011.563485. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Beitchman, J. H., Brownlie, E. B., Inglis, A., Wild, J., Ferguson, B., Schachter, D., & Mathews, R. (1996). Seven-year follow-up of speech/language impaired and control children: psychiatric outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(8), 961–970. CrossRef
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., … Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077.
Black, D. S. (2015). Mindfulness training for children and adolescents. Handbook of mindfulness: Theory, research, and practice, 283, 246–263.
Broderick, P. (2005). Mindfulness and coping with dysphoric mood: contrasts with rumination and distraction. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 501–510. CrossRef
Carlson, S. A. (2005). Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 595–616. CrossRef
Crane, R. S., Brewer, J., Feldman, C., Kabat-Zinn, J., Santorelli, S., Williams, J. M. G., & Kuyken, W. (2017). What defines mindfulness-based programs? The warp and the weft. Psychological Medicine, 47(6), 990–999. CrossRef
Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333, 959–964. CrossRef
Duckworth, A. L., & Kern, M. L. (2011). A meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(3), 259–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2011.02.004. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Flavell, J. H., Green, F. L., & Flavell, E. R. (2000). Development of children’s awareness of their own thoughts. Journal of Cognition and Development, 1(1), 97–112. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327647JCD0101N_10. CrossRef
Flook, L., Smalley, S. L., Kitil, M. J., Galla, B. M., Kaiser-Greenland, S., Locke, J., … Kasari, C. (2010). Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26(1), 70–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377900903379125. CrossRef
Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). Assessment of working memory in six-and seven-year-old children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 377. CrossRef
Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J., Ambridge, B., & Wearing, H. (2004). The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 177–190. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199. CrossRefPubMed
Gnys, J. A., & Willis, W. G. (1991). Validation of executive function tasks with young children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 7(4), 487–501. CrossRef
Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 581–586. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x. CrossRefPubMed
Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1337–1345. CrossRef
Greenland, S. K. (2010). The mindful child: How to help your kid manage stress and become happier, kinder, and more compassionate. New York: Free Press.
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation: affective, cognitive, and social consequences. Psychophysiology, 39(3), 281–291. CrossRef
Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12. CrossRef
Hilt, L. M., & Pollak, S. D. (2012). Getting out of rumination: comparison of three brief interventions in a sample of youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(7), 1157–1165. CrossRef
Johnson, S., Gur, R. M., David, Z., & Currier, E. (2013). One-session mindfulness meditation: a randomized controlled study of effects on cognition and mood. Mindfulness, 6(1), 88–98. CrossRef
Keng, S.-L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1041. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Keng, S.-L., Robins, C. J., Smoski, M. J., Dagenbach, J., & Leary, M. R. (2013). Reappraisal and mindfulness: a comparison of subjective effects and cognitive costs. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51(12), 899–904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.10.006. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kochanska, G., Coy, K. C., & Murray, K. T. (2001). The development of self-regulation in the first four years of life. Child Development, 72(4), 1091–1111. CrossRef
Lillard, A. S., & Peterson, J. (2011). The immediate impact of different types of television on young children’s executive function. Pediatrics, 128(4), 644. CrossRef
Mahmood, L., Hopthrow, T., & Randsley de Moura, G. (2016). A moment of mindfulness: computer-mediated mindfulness practice increases state mindfulness. PLoS One, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153923. CrossRef
Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(1), 40–48. CrossRef
Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244(4907), 933–938. CrossRef
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100. CrossRef
Müller, U., Kerns, K. A., & Konkin, K. (2012). Test–retest reliability and practice effects of executive function tasks in preschool children. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 26(2), 271–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2011.645558. CrossRefPubMed
Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van den Berg, F. (2003). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(1), 1–8. CrossRef
Nadler, R., Cordy, M., Stengel, J., Segal, Z. V., & Hayden, E. P. (2017). A brief mindfulness practice increases self-reported calmness in young children: a pilot study. Mindfulness, 1–8.
Parsons, C. E., Crane, C., Parsons, L. J., Fjorback, L. O., & Kuyken, W. (2017). Home practice in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of participants’ mindfulness practice and its association with outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 29–41. CrossRef
Ponitz, C. C., McClelland, M. M., Matthews, J. S., & Morrison, F. J. (2009). A structured observation of behavioral self-regulation and its contribution to kindergarten outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 605–619. CrossRef
Ridderinkhof, A., de Bruin, E. I., Brummelman, E., & Bögels, S. M. (2017). Does mindfulness meditation increase empathy? An experiment. Self and Identity, 1–19.
Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Oberle, E., Lawlor, M. S., Abbott, D., Thomson, K., Oberlander, T. F., & Diamond, A. (2015). Enhancing cognitive and social–emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 51(1), 52–66. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038454. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Senn, T. E., Espy, K. A., & Kaufmann, P. M. (2004). Using path analysis to understand executive function organization in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 445–464. CrossRef
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. CrossRef
Wechsler, D. (1949). Manual for the Wechsler intelligence scale for children. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation: Psychological Corporation.
Weger, U. W., Hooper, N., Meier, B. P., & Hopthrow, T. (2012). Mindful maths: reducing the impact of stereotype threat through a mindfulness exercise. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(1), 471–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2011.10.011. CrossRefPubMed
Welsh, M. C., Satterlee-Cartmell, T., & Stine, M. (1999). Towers of Hanoi and London: contribution of working memory and inhibition to performance. Brain and Cognition, 41(2), 231–242. CrossRef
Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition, 19(2), 597–605. CrossRef
Zelazo, P. D., & Lyons, K. E. (2012). The potential benefits of mindfulness training in early childhood: a developmental social cognitive neuroscience perspective. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 154–160. CrossRef
- Testing for an Effect of a Mindfulness Induction on Child Executive Functions
- Springer US