Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

01-06-2012

Ten-year quality of life outcomes among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: I. Predictive value of disorder-related factors

Auteurs: Michael S. Ritsner, Alexander Lisker, Marina Arbitman

Gepubliceerd in: Quality of Life Research | Uitgave 5/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Purpose

To provide data on long-term health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes among patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective (SA) disorders and determine the predictive value of disorder-related factors.

Methods

A total of 108 patients with SZ/SA were assessed during stabilization phase and over 10 years with the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Clinical Global Impression Scale, Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale (PANSS), Distress Scale for Adverse Symptoms (DSAS), Talbieh Brief Distress Inventory (TBDI), Brief Symptom Inventory-Somatization Scale (BSI-S), and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). Variability and relationships between Q-LES-Q and disorder-related dimensions over time were analyzed.

Results

There were no differences in Q-LES-Q dimensions between patients with SZ and SA disorders. Poor outcomes were found among 76% of the patients with SZ/SA disorders who remained dissatisfied (64%) or worsened (12%) with their HRQL over time. However, 24% of patients reported improved quality of life (16%), or remained satisfied (8%). Changes in TBDI, DSAS, BSI-S, PANSS, and GAF measures accounted for 20–50% of the total variance in satisfaction changes in Q-LES-Q domains across time.

Conclusions

Long-term quality of life outcomes are characterized by four different types that fit changes over time in emotional distress, side effects, somatization, symptom dimensions, and general functioning scores. Revealed predictors are factors that can be ameliorated and thereby enhance satisfaction with quality of life over time.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Lehman, A. F. (1996). Measures of quality of life among persons with severe and persistent mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 78–88.PubMedCrossRef Lehman, A. F. (1996). Measures of quality of life among persons with severe and persistent mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 78–88.PubMedCrossRef
2.
go back to reference Priebe, S. I., Roeder-Wanner, U. U., & Kaiser, W. (2000). Quality of life in first-admitted schizophrenia patients: A follow-up study. Psychological Medicine, 30, 225–230.PubMedCrossRef Priebe, S. I., Roeder-Wanner, U. U., & Kaiser, W. (2000). Quality of life in first-admitted schizophrenia patients: A follow-up study. Psychological Medicine, 30, 225–230.PubMedCrossRef
3.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Modai, I., Endicott, J., Rivkin, O., Nechamkin, Y., Barak, P., et al. (2000). Differences in quality of life domains and psychopathologic and psychosocial factors in psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 880–889.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Modai, I., Endicott, J., Rivkin, O., Nechamkin, Y., Barak, P., et al. (2000). Differences in quality of life domains and psychopathologic and psychosocial factors in psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 880–889.PubMedCrossRef
4.
go back to reference Ritsner, M.S., & Gibel, A. (2007). Quality of life impairment syndrome in schizophrenia. In: M. S. Ritsner, A. G. Awad (Eds.), (173–226) Netherlands: Springer. Ritsner, M.S., & Gibel, A. (2007). Quality of life impairment syndrome in schizophrenia. In: M. S. Ritsner, A. G. Awad (Eds.), (173–226) Netherlands: Springer.
5.
go back to reference Dickerson, F. B., Ringel, N. B., & Parente, F. (1998). Subjective quality of life in out-patients with schizophrenia: Clinical and utilization correlates. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98, 124–127.PubMedCrossRef Dickerson, F. B., Ringel, N. B., & Parente, F. (1998). Subjective quality of life in out-patients with schizophrenia: Clinical and utilization correlates. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98, 124–127.PubMedCrossRef
6.
go back to reference Packer, S., Husted, J., Cohen, S., & Tomlinson, G. (1998). Psychopathology and quality of life in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 22, 231–234. Packer, S., Husted, J., Cohen, S., & Tomlinson, G. (1998). Psychopathology and quality of life in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 22, 231–234.
7.
go back to reference Fitzgerald, P. B., Williams, C. L., & Corteling, N. (2001). Subject and observer-rated quality of life in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103, 387–392.PubMedCrossRef Fitzgerald, P. B., Williams, C. L., & Corteling, N. (2001). Subject and observer-rated quality of life in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103, 387–392.PubMedCrossRef
8.
go back to reference Bechdolf, A., Klosterkotter, J., Hambrecht, M., Knost, B., Kuntermann, C., Schiller, S., et al. (2003). Determinants of subjective quality of life in post acute patients with schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 253, 228–235.PubMedCrossRef Bechdolf, A., Klosterkotter, J., Hambrecht, M., Knost, B., Kuntermann, C., Schiller, S., et al. (2003). Determinants of subjective quality of life in post acute patients with schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 253, 228–235.PubMedCrossRef
9.
go back to reference Voruganti, L. N., Heslegrave, R. J., & Awad, A. G. (1997). Quality of life measurement during antipsychotic drug therapy of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 22, 267–274. Voruganti, L. N., Heslegrave, R. J., & Awad, A. G. (1997). Quality of life measurement during antipsychotic drug therapy of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 22, 267–274.
10.
go back to reference Young, A. S., Sullivan, G., & Burnam, M. A. (1998). Measuring the quality of outpatient treatment for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 1221–1230. Young, A. S., Sullivan, G., & Burnam, M. A. (1998). Measuring the quality of outpatient treatment for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 1221–1230.
11.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Ponizovsky, A., Endicott, J., Nechamkin, Y., Rauchverger, B., Silver, H., et al. (2002). Relatively small impact adverse events of antipsychotics on life satisfaction of schizophrenia patients: A naturalistic study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 12, 31–38.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Ponizovsky, A., Endicott, J., Nechamkin, Y., Rauchverger, B., Silver, H., et al. (2002). Relatively small impact adverse events of antipsychotics on life satisfaction of schizophrenia patients: A naturalistic study. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 12, 31–38.PubMedCrossRef
12.
go back to reference Lasalvia, A., Ruggeri, M., & Santolini, N. (2002). Subjective quality of life: Its relationship with clinician-rated and patient-rated psychopathology. The South-Verona outcome project 6. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 71, 275–284.PubMedCrossRef Lasalvia, A., Ruggeri, M., & Santolini, N. (2002). Subjective quality of life: Its relationship with clinician-rated and patient-rated psychopathology. The South-Verona outcome project 6. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 71, 275–284.PubMedCrossRef
13.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., & Kurs, R. (2002). Impact of antipsychotic agents and their side effects on the quality of life in schizophrenia. Expert Review in Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Research, 2, 89–98. Ritsner, M., & Kurs, R. (2002). Impact of antipsychotic agents and their side effects on the quality of life in schizophrenia. Expert Review in Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Research, 2, 89–98.
14.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., & Kurs, R. (2003). Quality of life outcomes in mental illness: Schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. Expert Review in Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Research, 3, 189–199.CrossRef Ritsner, M., & Kurs, R. (2003). Quality of life outcomes in mental illness: Schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. Expert Review in Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Research, 3, 189–199.CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Awad, A. G., & Voruganti, L. N. (2004). Impact of atypical antipsychotics on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. CNS Drugs, 18, 877–893.PubMedCrossRef Awad, A. G., & Voruganti, L. N. (2004). Impact of atypical antipsychotics on quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. CNS Drugs, 18, 877–893.PubMedCrossRef
16.
go back to reference Lambert, M., & Naber, D. (2004). Current issues in schizophrenia: Overview of patient acceptability, functioning capacity and quality of life. CNS Drugs 18(Suppl 2), 5–17. Lambert, M., & Naber, D. (2004). Current issues in schizophrenia: Overview of patient acceptability, functioning capacity and quality of life. CNS Drugs 18(Suppl 2), 5–17.
17.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Gibel, A., & Ratner, Y. (2006). Determinants of changes in perceived quality of life in the course of schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research, 15, 515–526.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Gibel, A., & Ratner, Y. (2006). Determinants of changes in perceived quality of life in the course of schizophrenia. Quality of Life Research, 15, 515–526.PubMedCrossRef
18.
go back to reference Bengtsson-Tops, A., & Hansson, L. (2001). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the social network in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors and subjective quality of life. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 47, 67–77.PubMedCrossRef Bengtsson-Tops, A., & Hansson, L. (2001). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the social network in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors and subjective quality of life. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 47, 67–77.PubMedCrossRef
19.
go back to reference Barry, M. M., & Crosby, C. (1996). Quality of life as an evaluative measure in assessing the impact of community care on people with long-term psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 210–216.PubMedCrossRef Barry, M. M., & Crosby, C. (1996). Quality of life as an evaluative measure in assessing the impact of community care on people with long-term psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 210–216.PubMedCrossRef
20.
go back to reference Bow-Thomas, C. C., Velligan, D. I., Miller, A. L., & Olsen, J. (1999). Predicting quality of life from symptomatology in schizophrenia at exacerbation and stabilization. Psychiatry Research, 86, 131–142.PubMedCrossRef Bow-Thomas, C. C., Velligan, D. I., Miller, A. L., & Olsen, J. (1999). Predicting quality of life from symptomatology in schizophrenia at exacerbation and stabilization. Psychiatry Research, 86, 131–142.PubMedCrossRef
21.
go back to reference Browne, S. (1999). Rehabilitation programmes and quality of life in severe mental illness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45(4), 302–309.PubMedCrossRef Browne, S. (1999). Rehabilitation programmes and quality of life in severe mental illness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45(4), 302–309.PubMedCrossRef
22.
go back to reference Lenz, G., & Demal, U. (2000). Quality of life in depression and anxiety disorders: An exploratory follow-up study after intensive inpatient cognitive behaviour therapy. Psychopathology, 33(6), 297–302.PubMedCrossRef Lenz, G., & Demal, U. (2000). Quality of life in depression and anxiety disorders: An exploratory follow-up study after intensive inpatient cognitive behaviour therapy. Psychopathology, 33(6), 297–302.PubMedCrossRef
23.
go back to reference Holloway, F., & Carson, J. (1999). Subjective quality of life, psychopathology, satisfaction with care and insight: An exploratory study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45, 259–267.PubMedCrossRef Holloway, F., & Carson, J. (1999). Subjective quality of life, psychopathology, satisfaction with care and insight: An exploratory study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 45, 259–267.PubMedCrossRef
24.
go back to reference Jarema, M., & Konieczynska, Z. (2001). Quality of life in schizophrenia: Impact of psychopathology, patients’ gender and antipsychotic treatment. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 5(1), 19–26. Jarema, M., & Konieczynska, Z. (2001). Quality of life in schizophrenia: Impact of psychopathology, patients’ gender and antipsychotic treatment. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 5(1), 19–26.
25.
go back to reference Tempier, R., Mercier, C., Leouffre, P., & Caron, J. (1997). Quality of life and social integration of severely mentally ill patients: A longitudinal study. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 22, 249–255. Tempier, R., Mercier, C., Leouffre, P., & Caron, J. (1997). Quality of life and social integration of severely mentally ill patients: A longitudinal study. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 22, 249–255.
26.
go back to reference Salokangas, R. K., Honkonen, T., Stengård, E., & Koivisto, A. M. (2006). Subjective life satisfaction and living situations of persons in Finland with long-term schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 57(3), 373–381.PubMedCrossRef Salokangas, R. K., Honkonen, T., Stengård, E., & Koivisto, A. M. (2006). Subjective life satisfaction and living situations of persons in Finland with long-term schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 57(3), 373–381.PubMedCrossRef
27.
go back to reference Skantze, K. (1998). Subjective quality of life and standard of living: A 10-year follow-up of out-patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98(5), 390–399.PubMedCrossRef Skantze, K. (1998). Subjective quality of life and standard of living: A 10-year follow-up of out-patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 98(5), 390–399.PubMedCrossRef
28.
go back to reference Lehman, A. F. (1988). A quality of life interview for the chronically mental ill. Evaluation and Program Planning, 11, 51–62.CrossRef Lehman, A. F. (1988). A quality of life interview for the chronically mental ill. Evaluation and Program Planning, 11, 51–62.CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Sullivan, G., Wells, K. B., & Leake, B. (1991). Quality of life of seriously mentally ill persons in Mississippi. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 42, 752–755. Sullivan, G., Wells, K. B., & Leake, B. (1991). Quality of life of seriously mentally ill persons in Mississippi. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 42, 752–755.
30.
go back to reference Malla, A., & Payne, J. (2005). First-episode psychosis: Psychopathology, quality of life, and functional outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 650–671.PubMedCrossRef Malla, A., & Payne, J. (2005). First-episode psychosis: Psychopathology, quality of life, and functional outcome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 650–671.PubMedCrossRef
31.
go back to reference Ritsner, M.S. (2007). The Distress/Protection Vulnerability Model of the quality of life impairment syndrome: Current evidence and new directions for research. In: M. S. Ritsner, A. G. Awad (Eds.), Quality of Life Impairment in Schizophrenia, Mood and Anxiety Disorders (pp. 3–19). Netherlands: Springer. Ritsner, M.S. (2007). The Distress/Protection Vulnerability Model of the quality of life impairment syndrome: Current evidence and new directions for research. In: M. S. Ritsner, A. G. Awad (Eds.), Quality of Life Impairment in Schizophrenia, Mood and Anxiety Disorders (pp. 3–19). Netherlands: Springer.
32.
go back to reference Awad, G. (1992). Quality of life of schizophrenic patients on medication and implications for new drug trials. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 43, 262–266. Awad, G. (1992). Quality of life of schizophrenic patients on medication and implications for new drug trials. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 43, 262–266.
33.
go back to reference Skantze, K., & Malm, U. (1994). A new approach to facilitation of working alliances based on patients’ quality of life goals. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 37–55.CrossRef Skantze, K., & Malm, U. (1994). A new approach to facilitation of working alliances based on patients’ quality of life goals. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 1, 37–55.CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Zissi, A., Barry, M. M., & Cochrane, R. (1998). A mediational model of quality of life for individuals with severe mental health problems. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1221–1230.PubMedCrossRef Zissi, A., Barry, M. M., & Cochrane, R. (1998). A mediational model of quality of life for individuals with severe mental health problems. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1221–1230.PubMedCrossRef
35.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Kurs, R., Gibel, A., Hirschmann, S., Shinkarenko, E., & Ratner, Y. (2003). Predictors of quality of life in major psychoses: A naturalistic follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 308–315.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Kurs, R., Gibel, A., Hirschmann, S., Shinkarenko, E., & Ratner, Y. (2003). Predictors of quality of life in major psychoses: A naturalistic follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 308–315.PubMedCrossRef
36.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., & Kurs, R. (2006). Quality-of-life impairment in severe mental illness: Focus on schizoaffective disorders. In William. H. Murray (Ed.), Schizoaffective disorder: New research (pp. 69–107). New York: NOVA Publishers. Ritsner, M., & Kurs, R. (2006). Quality-of-life impairment in severe mental illness: Focus on schizoaffective disorders. In William. H. Murray (Ed.), Schizoaffective disorder: New research (pp. 69–107). New York: NOVA Publishers.
37.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
38.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Ben-Avi, I., Ponizovsky, A., Timinsky, I., Bistrov, E., & Modai, I. (2003). Quality of life and coping with schizophrenia symptoms. Quality of Life Research, 12, 1–9.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Ben-Avi, I., Ponizovsky, A., Timinsky, I., Bistrov, E., & Modai, I. (2003). Quality of life and coping with schizophrenia symptoms. Quality of Life Research, 12, 1–9.PubMedCrossRef
39.
go back to reference Ritsner, M. (2003). Predicting changes in domain-specific quality of life of schizophrenia patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 287–294.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M. (2003). Predicting changes in domain-specific quality of life of schizophrenia patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 287–294.PubMedCrossRef
40.
go back to reference Endicott, J., Nee, J., Harrison, W., & Blumenthal, R. (1993). Quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire: A new measure. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 29, 321–326.PubMed Endicott, J., Nee, J., Harrison, W., & Blumenthal, R. (1993). Quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire: A new measure. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 29, 321–326.PubMed
41.
go back to reference Guy, W. (1976). ECDU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Guy, W. (1976). ECDU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services.
42.
go back to reference Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261–276.PubMed Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., & Opler, L. A. (1987). The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261–276.PubMed
43.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Modai, I., Rivkin, O., Bystrov, E., Nehamkin, Y., & Ponizovsky, A. (1999). Distress scale for adverse symptoms: A new instrument for measuring the relationship between adverse drug symptoms and associated distress. 12th ECNP Congress, London—United Kingdom, September 21–25, 1999. European Neuropsychopharmacology 9(Suppl. 5), S258. Ritsner, M., Modai, I., Rivkin, O., Bystrov, E., Nehamkin, Y., & Ponizovsky, A. (1999). Distress scale for adverse symptoms: A new instrument for measuring the relationship between adverse drug symptoms and associated distress. 12th ECNP Congress, London—United Kingdom, September 21–25, 1999. European Neuropsychopharmacology 9(Suppl. 5), S258.
44.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Rabinowitz, J., & Slyuzberg, M. (1995). The Talbieh brief distress inventory: A brief instrument to measure psychological distress among immigrants. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36, 448–453.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Rabinowitz, J., & Slyuzberg, M. (1995). The Talbieh brief distress inventory: A brief instrument to measure psychological distress among immigrants. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 36, 448–453.PubMedCrossRef
45.
go back to reference Ritsner, M., Modai, I., & Ponizovsky, A. (2002). Assessing psychological distress in psychiatric patients: Validation of the Talbieh brief distress inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43, 229–234.PubMedCrossRef Ritsner, M., Modai, I., & Ponizovsky, A. (2002). Assessing psychological distress in psychiatric patients: Validation of the Talbieh brief distress inventory. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43, 229–234.PubMedCrossRef
46.
go back to reference Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, P. M. (1982). The brief symptom inventory (BSI): Administration, scoring and procedures manual. School of Medicine: Johns Hopkins University. Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, P. M. (1982). The brief symptom inventory (BSI): Administration, scoring and procedures manual. School of Medicine: Johns Hopkins University.
47.
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
48.
go back to reference Hintze, J. L. (1998). NCSS 6.0. Statistical System for Windows. User’s Guide. Kaysville Utah: Number Cruncher Statistical Systems. Hintze, J. L. (1998). NCSS 6.0. Statistical System for Windows. User’s Guide. Kaysville Utah: Number Cruncher Statistical Systems.
49.
go back to reference Skantze, K., Malm, U., Dencker, S. J., May, P. R., & Corrigan, P. (1992). Comparison of quality of life with standard of living in schizophrenic outpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 797–801.PubMedCrossRef Skantze, K., Malm, U., Dencker, S. J., May, P. R., & Corrigan, P. (1992). Comparison of quality of life with standard of living in schizophrenic outpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 797–801.PubMedCrossRef
50.
go back to reference Lambert, M., Schimmelmann, B. G., Schacht, A., Karow, A., Wagner, T., Wehmeier, P. M., et al. (2009). Long-term patterns of subjective wellbeing in schizophrenia: Cluster, predictors of cluster affiliation, and their relation to recovery criteria in 2,842 patients followed over 3 years. Schizophrenia Research, 107(2–3), 165–172.PubMedCrossRef Lambert, M., Schimmelmann, B. G., Schacht, A., Karow, A., Wagner, T., Wehmeier, P. M., et al. (2009). Long-term patterns of subjective wellbeing in schizophrenia: Cluster, predictors of cluster affiliation, and their relation to recovery criteria in 2,842 patients followed over 3 years. Schizophrenia Research, 107(2–3), 165–172.PubMedCrossRef
51.
go back to reference Warner, R. (2009). Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22(4), 374–380.PubMedCrossRef Warner, R. (2009). Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 22(4), 374–380.PubMedCrossRef
52.
go back to reference Srivastava, A. K., Stitt, L., Thakar, M., Shah, N., & Chinnasam, G. (2009). The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: A 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India. Annals of General Psychiatry, 8, 24.PubMedCrossRef Srivastava, A. K., Stitt, L., Thakar, M., Shah, N., & Chinnasam, G. (2009). The abilities of improved schizophrenia patients to work and live independently in the community: A 10-year long-term outcome study from Mumbai, India. Annals of General Psychiatry, 8, 24.PubMedCrossRef
53.
go back to reference Awad, A. G., Voruganti, L. N., & Heslegrave, R. J. (1997). A conceptual model of quality of life in schizophrenia: Description and preliminary clinical validation. Quality of Life Research, 6, 21–26.PubMedCrossRef Awad, A. G., Voruganti, L. N., & Heslegrave, R. J. (1997). A conceptual model of quality of life in schizophrenia: Description and preliminary clinical validation. Quality of Life Research, 6, 21–26.PubMedCrossRef
54.
go back to reference Franz, M., Meyer, T., Reber, T., & Gallhofer, B. (2000). The importance of social comparisons for high levels of subjective quality of life in chronic schizophrenic patients. Quality of Life Research, 9(5), 481–489.PubMedCrossRef Franz, M., Meyer, T., Reber, T., & Gallhofer, B. (2000). The importance of social comparisons for high levels of subjective quality of life in chronic schizophrenic patients. Quality of Life Research, 9(5), 481–489.PubMedCrossRef
55.
go back to reference Heinrichs, D. W., Hanlon, T. E., & Carpenter, W. T., Jr. (1984). The quality of life scale: An instrument for rating the schizophrenic deficit syndrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 388–398.PubMed Heinrichs, D. W., Hanlon, T. E., & Carpenter, W. T., Jr. (1984). The quality of life scale: An instrument for rating the schizophrenic deficit syndrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 388–398.PubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Ten-year quality of life outcomes among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: I. Predictive value of disorder-related factors
Auteurs
Michael S. Ritsner
Alexander Lisker
Marina Arbitman
Publicatiedatum
01-06-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer Netherlands
Gepubliceerd in
Quality of Life Research / Uitgave 5/2012
Print ISSN: 0962-9343
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2649
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-011-9988-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 5/2012

Quality of Life Research 5/2012 Naar de uitgave