Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers’ later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Alan Guttmacher Institute. (2006). U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics national and state trends and trends by race and ethnicity. New York: Guttmacher Institute.
Arai, L. (2007). Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: Qualitative findings from research in English communities. Health & Place, 13(1), 87–98. CrossRef
Blanton, H., Vandeneijnden, R. J. J. M., Buunk, B., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Bakker, A. (2001). Accentuate the negative: Social images in the prediction and promotion of condom use. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(2), 274–295. CrossRef
Bryant, C. M., Wickrama, K. A. S., Bollard, J., Bryant, B., Cutrona, C. E., & Stank, C. E. (2010). Race matters, even in marriage: Identifying factors linked to marital outcomes for African Americans. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 2(3), 157–174. CrossRef
Caliendo, M., & Kopeinig, S. (2005). Some practical guidance for the implementation of propensity score matching: Discussion Paper No. 1588. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.
Cartmill, R. S. V., & Bromham, D. R. (1996). The impact of an unplanned pregnancy and termination on intended future contraception: Implications for reproductive health promotion. British Journal of Family Planning, 22(1), 2–5.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2007. Atlanta: Department of Health and Human Services.
Clemmens, D. (2003). Adolescent motherhood: A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 28(2), 93–99. CrossRef
Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Collins, P. H. (1990). Mammies, matriarchs, and other controlling images black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (pp. 67–90). Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Collins, P. H. (2004). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge. CrossRef
Edin, K., & Kefalas, M. (2005). Promises I can keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7(2), 117–140. CrossRef
Fisher, J., & Mason, R. (1981). The analysis of multicollinear data in criminology. In J. A. Fox (Ed.), Methods in quantitative criminology (pp. 99–125). New York: Academic Press.
Furstenberg, F. F. (2003). Teenage childbearing as a public issue and private concern. Annual Review of Sociology, 29(1), 23–39. CrossRef
Furstenberg, F. F. (2007). Destinies of the disadvantaged: The politics of teen childbearing. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Furstenberg, F. F. (2009). If Moynihan had only known: Race, class, and family change in the late twentieth century. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 621(1), 94–110. CrossRef
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Houlihan, A. E., Stock, M. L., & Pomery, E. A. (2008). A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28(1), 29–61. CrossRef
Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Stock, M. L., Vande Lune, L., & Cleveland, M. J. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(4), 305–318. PubMedCrossRef
Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (1997). Health images and their effects on health behavior. In B. P. Buunk & F. X. Gibbons (Eds.), Health, coping, and well-being: Perspectives from social comparison theory (pp. 63–94). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Boney McCoy, S. (1995). Prototype perception predicts (lack of) pregnancy prevention. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(1), 85–93. CrossRef
Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Lane, D. J. (2003). A social reaction model of adolescent health risk. In J. Suls & K. A. Wallston (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of health and illness. Blackwell series in health psychology and behavioral medicine (pp. 107–136). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Harding, D. J. (2007). Cultural context, sexual behavior, and romantic relationships in disadvantaged neighborhoods. American Sociological Review, 72(3), 341–364. CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for the fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. CrossRef
Kirkman, M., Harrison, L., Hillier, L., & Pyett, P. (2001). ‘I know I’m doing a good job’: Canonical and autobiographical narratives of teenage mothers. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 3(3), 279–294. CrossRef
Kogan, S. M., Simons, L. G., Chen, Y. F., Burwell, S. B., & Brody, G. (in press). Protective parenting, relationship power equity, and condom use among rural African Americans in emerging adulthood. Family Relations.
Lanctot, N., & Smith, C. A. (2001). Sexual activity, pregnancy, and deviance in a representative urban sample of African American girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 349–372. CrossRef
Miller, J. (2008). Getting played: African American girls, urban inequality, and gendered violence. New York: New York University Press.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Pazol, K., Warner, L., Gavin, L., Callaghan, W. M., Spitz, A. M., Anderson, J. E., et al. (2012). Vital signs: Teen pregnancy—United States, 1991–2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(13), 414–420.
Raftery, A. E. (1995). Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociological Methodology, 25(1), 111–163. CrossRef
Schelar, E., Franzetta, K., & Manlove, J. (2007). Repeat teen childbearing: Differences across states and by race and ethnicity. Child Trends Research Brief no. 2007–23, pp. 1–7.
Seamark, C. J., & Lings, P. (2004). Positive experiences of teenage motherhood: A qualitative study. British Journal of General Practice, 54(508), 813–818. PubMed
Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Conger, R. D., & Brody, G. H. (2004). Collective socialization and child conduct problems: A multilevel analysis with an African American sample. Youth & Society, 35(3), 267–292. CrossRef
Simons, R. L., Lin, K.-H., Gordon, L. C., Brody, G. H., Murry, V., & Conger, R. (2002a). Community differences in the association between parenting practices and child conduct problems. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(2), 331–345. CrossRef
South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (2010). Neighborhood poverty and nonmarital fertility: Spatial and temporal dimensions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(1), 89–104.
Spijkerman, R., Van Den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2007). Perceptions of smoking and nonsmoking peers: The value of smoker and nonsmoker prototypes in predicting smoking onset and regular smoking among adolescents. Health Education & Behavior, 34(6), 897–910. CrossRef
Spijkerman, R., van den Eijnden, R. J. J. M., Vitale, S., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2004). Explaining adolescents’ smoking and drinking behavior: The concept of smoker and drinker prototypes in relation to variables of the theory of planned behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 29(8), 1615–1622. PubMedCrossRef
StataCorp. (2011). Stata statistical software: Release 12. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
Tesser, A. (2007). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In D. A. Stapel & H. Blanton (Eds.), Social comparison theories: Key readings (pp. 105–120). New York: Psychology Press.
Thornton, B., Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (2002). Risk perception and prototype perception: Independent processes predicting risk behavior. Personality and Social Psychology, 28(7), 986–999.
Wilson, H., & Huntington, A. (2006). Deviant (M)Others: The construction of teenage motherhood in contemporary discourse. Journal of Social Policy, 35(1), 59–76. CrossRef
- Teen Motherhood and Pregnancy Prototypes: The Role of Social Context in Changing Young African American Mothers’ Risk Images and Contraceptive Expectations
Ashley B. Barr
Ronald L. Simons
Leslie Gordon Simons
Frederick X. Gibbons
- Springer US