Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2/2017

14-11-2016 | Original Paper

Syntax and Morphology in Danish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Auteurs: Cecilia Brynskov, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Meta Jørgensen, Sanne Lemcke, Ocke-Schwen Bohn, Peter Krøjgaard

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 2/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4–6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with significant within-group heterogeneity; furthermore, syntactic and morphological measures were impaired even for subgroups matched on vocabulary. Children in the ASD group without early language delay showed syntactic and morphological impairment, with intact performance on vocabulary and sentence repetition. Findings indicate that syntactic and morphological impairments are a significant concern for high-functioning children with ASD, and may be overlooked if language evaluation focuses exclusively on vocabulary.
Voetnoten
1
The main difference between ICD-10 criteria for Childhood Autism and DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder is that the two first subcriteria of ICD-10, (a) deficits within social interaction, and (b) deficits within language and communication, have been collapsed into the first subcriterion of DSM-5: deficits within social-communication and social interaction. All children diagnosed with ICD-10 Childhood Autism in this study would qualify for a diagnosis of DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder.
 
2
The similarities between Danish and English grammar made a relatively direct translation viable. The main morphological differences are that Danish does not have present progressive and third person marking, but does mark nouns for gender. As such, items testing present progressive and third person marking were removed. The publisher prohibited the inclusion of any additional items, so the CELF did not include items measuring gender marking on nouns; this marking is acquired very early. An additional difference is that Danish has no rules for copula contraction; thus, items testing this structure were also removed. The translated version thus measures nearly all the relevant Danish morphemes. As for syntactic differences between Danish and English, in some Danish sentences (e.g., those introduced by an adverbial phrase), the verb precedes the subject. In the subtest Sentence Structure, there were no cases of this “inverted” word order, and thus all translations were straightforward. Only one item was removed from Sentence Structure, due to semantic differences. Altogether, the translated version was thought to be useful for measuring morphosyntactic knowledge of Danish.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Bartolucci, G., Pierce, S. J., & Streiner, D. L. (1980). Cross-sectional studies of grammatical morphemes in autistic and mentally retarded children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10(1), 39–50. CrossRefPubMed Bartolucci, G., Pierce, S. J., & Streiner, D. L. (1980). Cross-sectional studies of grammatical morphemes in autistic and mentally retarded children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10(1), 39–50. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Boucher, J. (2012). Research review: Structural language in autistic spectrum disorder—characteristics and causes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53(3), 219–233. CrossRefPubMed Boucher, J. (2012). Research review: Structural language in autistic spectrum disorder—characteristics and causes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53(3), 219–233. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cantwell, D. P., Baker, L., Rutter, M., & Mahwood, L. (1989). Infantile autism and developmental receptive dysphasia: A comparative follow-up into middle childhood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 19–31. CrossRefPubMed Cantwell, D. P., Baker, L., Rutter, M., & Mahwood, L. (1989). Infantile autism and developmental receptive dysphasia: A comparative follow-up into middle childhood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 19–31. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Charman, T., Drew, A., Baird, C. & Baird, G. (2003). Measuring early language development in pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Infant Form). Journal of Child Language, 30, 213–236. CrossRefPubMed Charman, T., Drew, A., Baird, C. & Baird, G. (2003). Measuring early language development in pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Infant Form). Journal of Child Language, 30, 213–236. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Chouinard, B., & Cummine, J. (2016). All the world’s a stage: Evaluation of two stages of metaphor comprehension in people with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 23, 107–121. CrossRef Chouinard, B., & Cummine, J. (2016). All the world’s a stage: Evaluation of two stages of metaphor comprehension in people with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 23, 107–121. CrossRef
go back to reference Clay, M. M. (1971). Sentence repetition: Elicited imitation of a controlled set of syntactic structures by four language groups. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 36(3), 85. CrossRef Clay, M. M. (1971). Sentence repetition: Elicited imitation of a controlled set of syntactic structures by four language groups. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 36(3), 85. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
go back to reference Conti-Ramsden, G., Botting, N., & Faragher, B. (2001). Psycholinguistic markers for specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(6), 741–748. CrossRefPubMed Conti-Ramsden, G., Botting, N., & Faragher, B. (2001). Psycholinguistic markers for specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(6), 741–748. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference De Giacomo, A., & Fombonne, E. (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(3), 131–136. CrossRefPubMed De Giacomo, A., & Fombonne, E. (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(3), 131–136. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Dunn, L. M., Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test, (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson. Dunn, L. M., Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test, (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.
go back to reference Dunn L., Dunn M., Styles, B., & Sewell, J. (2009). British picture vocabulary scale (BPVS-III) (3rd ed.). London: GL Assessment. Dunn L., Dunn M., Styles, B., & Sewell, J. (2009). British picture vocabulary scale (BPVS-III) (3rd ed.). London: GL Assessment.
go back to reference Eigsti, I.-M., & Bennetto, L. (2009). Grammaticality judgments in autism: Deviance or delay. Journal of Child Language, 36(5), 999–1021. CrossRefPubMed Eigsti, I.-M., & Bennetto, L. (2009). Grammaticality judgments in autism: Deviance or delay. Journal of Child Language, 36(5), 999–1021. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Eigsti, I.-M., Bennetto, L., & Dadlani, M. B. (2007). Beyond pragmatics: Morphosyntactic development in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1007–1023. CrossRefPubMed Eigsti, I.-M., Bennetto, L., & Dadlani, M. B. (2007). Beyond pragmatics: Morphosyntactic development in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 1007–1023. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fenson, L., Dale, P., Reznick, J., Bates, E., Thal, D., & Pethick, S. J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 1–173. Discussion 74–85. CrossRefPubMed Fenson, L., Dale, P., Reznick, J., Bates, E., Thal, D., & Pethick, S. J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 1–173. Discussion 74–85. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Fortunato-Tavares, T., Andrade, C, R. F., Befi-Lopes, D., Limongi, S, O., Fernandes, F. D. M., & Schwartz, R. G. (2015). Syntactic comprehension and working memory in children with specific language impairment, autism or down syndrome. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 29(7), 499–522. CrossRef Fortunato-Tavares, T., Andrade, C, R. F., Befi-Lopes, D., Limongi, S, O., Fernandes, F. D. M., & Schwartz, R. G. (2015). Syntactic comprehension and working memory in children with specific language impairment, autism or down syndrome. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 29(7), 499–522. CrossRef
go back to reference Gerenser, J. (2009). Language disorders in children with autism. In R. G. Schwartz (Ed.), Handbook of child language disorders (pp. 67–89). New York: Psychology Press. Gerenser, J. (2009). Language disorders in children with autism. In R. G. Schwartz (Ed.), Handbook of child language disorders (pp. 67–89). New York: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Gernsbacher, M. A., Geye, H. M., & Weismer, S. E. (2005). The role of language and communication impairments within autism. In P. Fletcher & J. F. Miller (Eds.), Developmental theory and language disorders (pp. 73–93). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. CrossRef Gernsbacher, M. A., Geye, H. M., & Weismer, S. E. (2005). The role of language and communication impairments within autism. In P. Fletcher & J. F. Miller (Eds.), Developmental theory and language disorders (pp. 73–93). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. CrossRef
go back to reference Grønborg, A., Køhler, I., Lund, J., & Møller, B. H. (1987). Dansk Impressiv Morfologisk test (DIM). Herning, DK: Special-pædagogisk forlag. Grønborg, A., Køhler, I., Lund, J., & Møller, B. H. (1987). Dansk Impressiv Morfologisk test (DIM). Herning, DK: Special-pædagogisk forlag.
go back to reference Hansen, E. J., & Andersen, B. H. (2009). Et sociologisk værktøj : introduktion til den kvantitative metode (2nd ed.). Kbh.: Hans Reitzel. Hansen, E. J., & Andersen, B. H. (2009). Et sociologisk værktøj : introduktion til den kvantitative metode (2nd ed.). Kbh.: Hans Reitzel.
go back to reference Harper-Hill, K., Copland, D., & Arnott, W. (2013). Do spoken nonword and sentence repetition tasks discriminate language impairment in children with an ASD? Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 265–275. CrossRef Harper-Hill, K., Copland, D., & Arnott, W. (2013). Do spoken nonword and sentence repetition tasks discriminate language impairment in children with an ASD? Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 265–275. CrossRef
go back to reference Hart, B.M., & Risley, T.R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publ. Co. Hart, B.M., & Risley, T.R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publ. Co.
go back to reference Hoff, E., & Tian, C. (2005). Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 271–278. CrossRefPubMed Hoff, E., & Tian, C. (2005). Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 271–278. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Howlin, P. (1984). The acquisition of grammatical morphemes in autistic children: A critique and replication of the findings of Bartolucci, Pierce, and Streiner, 1980. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14(2), 127–136. CrossRefPubMed Howlin, P. (1984). The acquisition of grammatical morphemes in autistic children: A critique and replication of the findings of Bartolucci, Pierce, and Streiner, 1980. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14(2), 127–136. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Howlin, P. (2005). Outcomes in Autism Spectrum Disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.). Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., Vol. 1), (pp. 201–220). Hoboken, NJ, US: Wiley. Howlin, P. (2005). Outcomes in Autism Spectrum Disorders. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.). Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., Vol. 1), (pp. 201–220). Hoboken, NJ, US: Wiley.
go back to reference Jarrold, C., Boucher, J., & Russell, J. (1997). Language profiles in children with autism. Autism: The international Journal of Research and Practice, 1(1), 57–76. CrossRef Jarrold, C., Boucher, J., & Russell, J. (1997). Language profiles in children with autism. Autism: The international Journal of Research and Practice, 1(1), 57–76. CrossRef
go back to reference Kidd, E., Brandt, S., Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Object relatives made easy: A cross-linguistic comparison of the constraints influencing young children’s processing of relative clauses. Language and Cogntive Processes, 22(6), 860–897. CrossRef Kidd, E., Brandt, S., Lieven, E., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Object relatives made easy: A cross-linguistic comparison of the constraints influencing young children’s processing of relative clauses. Language and Cogntive Processes, 22(6), 860–897. CrossRef
go back to reference Kim, S. H., Paul, R., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2014). Language and communication in autism. In F. Volkmar, R. Paul & A. Klin (Eds.), Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 230–262). New York: Wiley. Kim, S. H., Paul, R., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2014). Language and communication in autism. In F. Volkmar, R. Paul & A. Klin (Eds.), Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders (3rd ed., pp. 230–262). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Kjelgaard, M. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An Investigation of Language impairment in autism: Implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitve Processes, 16(2–3), 287–308. CrossRef Kjelgaard, M. M., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An Investigation of Language impairment in autism: Implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitve Processes, 16(2–3), 287–308. CrossRef
go back to reference Leonard, L. B. (2007). Processing limitations and the grammatical profile of children with specific language impairment. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 35, 139–171. CrossRefPubMed Leonard, L. B. (2007). Processing limitations and the grammatical profile of children with specific language impairment. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 35, 139–171. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Leonard, L. B. (1998). Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Leonard, L. B. (1998). Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
go back to reference Linebarger, M. C., Schwartz, M. F., & Saffran, E. M. (1983). Sensitivity to grammatical structure in so-called agrammatic aphasics. Cognition, 13(3), 361–392. CrossRefPubMed Linebarger, M. C., Schwartz, M. F., & Saffran, E. M. (1983). Sensitivity to grammatical structure in so-called agrammatic aphasics. Cognition, 13(3), 361–392. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., … Rutter, M. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., … Rutter, M. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview—revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659–685. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview—revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24(5), 659–685. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mayo, J., Chlebowski, C., Fein, D. A., & Eigsti, I.-M. (2013). Age of first words predicts cognitive ability and adaptive skills in children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(2), 253–264. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Mayo, J., Chlebowski, C., Fein, D. A., & Eigsti, I.-M. (2013). Age of first words predicts cognitive ability and adaptive skills in children with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(2), 253–264. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference McGregor, K. K., Berns, A. J., Owen, A. J., Michels, S. A., Duff, D., Bahnsen, A. J., & Lloyd, M. (2012). Associations between syntax and the lexicon among children with or without ASD and language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(1), 35. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral McGregor, K. K., Berns, A. J., Owen, A. J., Michels, S. A., Duff, D., Bahnsen, A. J., & Lloyd, M. (2012). Associations between syntax and the lexicon among children with or without ASD and language impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(1), 35. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Mervis, C., & Klein-Tasman, B. (2004). Methodological issues in group-matching designs: Alpha levels for control variable comparisons and measurement characteristics of control and target variables. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(1), 7–17. CrossRefPubMed Mervis, C., & Klein-Tasman, B. (2004). Methodological issues in group-matching designs: Alpha levels for control variable comparisons and measurement characteristics of control and target variables. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(1), 7–17. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mottron, L. (2004). Matching strategies in cognitive research with individuals with high-functioning autism: Current practices, instrument biases, and recommendations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(1), 19–27. CrossRefPubMed Mottron, L. (2004). Matching strategies in cognitive research with individuals with high-functioning autism: Current practices, instrument biases, and recommendations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(1), 19–27. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Park, C. J., Yelland, G. W., Taffe, J. R., & Gray, K. M. (2012). Morphological and syntactic skills in language samples of preschool aged children with autism: Atypical development? International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(2), 95–108. CrossRefPubMed Park, C. J., Yelland, G. W., Taffe, J. R., & Gray, K. M. (2012). Morphological and syntactic skills in language samples of preschool aged children with autism: Atypical development? International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(2), 95–108. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Perovic, A., Modyanova, K., & Wexler, K. (2013). Comprehension of reflexive and personal pronouns in children with autism: A syntactic or pragmatic deficit? Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(4), 813–835. CrossRef Perovic, A., Modyanova, K., & Wexler, K. (2013). Comprehension of reflexive and personal pronouns in children with autism: A syntactic or pragmatic deficit? Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(4), 813–835. CrossRef
go back to reference Prizant, B. M. (1983). Language acquisition and communicative behavior in autism: Toward an understanding of the “whole” of it. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 48(3), 296–307. CrossRef Prizant, B. M. (1983). Language acquisition and communicative behavior in autism: Toward an understanding of the “whole” of it. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 48(3), 296–307. CrossRef
go back to reference Raven, J. (2008). Raven’s—educational: Coloured progressive matrices. London: Pearson Assessment. Raven, J. (2008). Raven’s—educational: Coloured progressive matrices. London: Pearson Assessment.
go back to reference Riches, N. G., Loucas, T., Baird, G., Charman, T., & Simonoff, E. (2010). Research report: Sentence repetition in adolescents with specific language impairments and autism: An investigation of complex syntax. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45(1), 47–60. CrossRef Riches, N. G., Loucas, T., Baird, G., Charman, T., & Simonoff, E. (2010). Research report: Sentence repetition in adolescents with specific language impairments and autism: An investigation of complex syntax. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45(1), 47–60. CrossRef
go back to reference Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social communication questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social communication questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2(4), 435–450. PubMed Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2(4), 435–450. PubMed
go back to reference Stokes, S. F., Wong, A. M. Y., Fletcher, P., & Leonard, L. B. (2006). Nonword repetition and sentence repetition as clinical markers of specific language impairment: The case of Cantonese. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(2), 219–236. CrossRefPubMed Stokes, S. F., Wong, A. M. Y., Fletcher, P., & Leonard, L. B. (2006). Nonword repetition and sentence repetition as clinical markers of specific language impairment: The case of Cantonese. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49(2), 219–236. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tager-Flusberg, H. (1981). Sentence comprehension in autistic children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2(1), 5–24. CrossRef Tager-Flusberg, H. (1981). Sentence comprehension in autistic children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2(1), 5–24. CrossRef
go back to reference Tager-Flusberg, H. (2015). Defining language impairments in a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorder. Science China Life Sciences, 58(10), 1044–1052. CrossRefPubMed Tager-Flusberg, H. (2015). Defining language impairments in a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorder. Science China Life Sciences, 58(10), 1044–1052. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tager-Flusberg, H., & Sullivan, K. (1995). Attributing mental states to story characters: A comparison of narratives produced by autistic and mentally retarded individuals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16(3), 241–256. CrossRef Tager-Flusberg, H., & Sullivan, K. (1995). Attributing mental states to story characters: A comparison of narratives produced by autistic and mentally retarded individuals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16(3), 241–256. CrossRef
go back to reference Tomblin, B. (2011). Co-morbidity of autism and SLI: Kinds, kin and complexity. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46(2), 127–137. CrossRef Tomblin, B. (2011). Co-morbidity of autism and SLI: Kinds, kin and complexity. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 46(2), 127–137. CrossRef
go back to reference Tsai, L. Y., & Beisler, J. M. (1984). Research in infantile autism: A methodological problem in using language comprehension as the basis for selecting matched controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23(6), 700–703. CrossRefPubMed Tsai, L. Y., & Beisler, J. M. (1984). Research in infantile autism: A methodological problem in using language comprehension as the basis for selecting matched controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23(6), 700–703. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Semel, E. (2004). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals, preschool (2nd ed.) San Antonio, TX: Pearson Education, Inc. Wiig, E. H., Secord, W. A., & Semel, E. (2004). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals, preschool (2nd ed.) San Antonio, TX: Pearson Education, Inc.
go back to reference World Health Organization. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO. World Health Organization. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). Geneva: WHO.
Metagegevens
Titel
Syntax and Morphology in Danish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auteurs
Cecilia Brynskov
Inge-Marie Eigsti
Meta Jørgensen
Sanne Lemcke
Ocke-Schwen Bohn
Peter Krøjgaard
Publicatiedatum
14-11-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 2/2017
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2962-7