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In the case-study of Ali, the writers illustrate how a structural approach, using a model of self-states, provides treatment for patients suffering from complex trauma experiences. In a process of discovery, identification and ultimately increasing integration of different self-states, the patient slowly reclaims control of his affects. The exploration of the connection between these self-states and earlier trauma exposes pain and suffering. Developing compassion for oneself and mourning over the loss and pain one has endured is a vital element in letting go negative, self-destructive introjections that often inhibit the recovery of playfulness and joy in life. Compassionate acceptance of the patient and his self-states plays a key role in the therapeutic environment. When patient and therapist do not share the same cultural background, the notion of this difference and the wish to get to know the other without coercion or judgement, is a crucial part of this acceptance.