Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 3/2007

01-03-2007 | Original Paper

Studying the Emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in High-risk Infants: Methodological and Practical Issues

Auteurs: Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Audrey Thurm, Wendy Stone, Grace Baranek, Susan Bryson, Jana Iverson, Alice Kau, Ami Klin, Cathy Lord, Rebecca Landa, Sally Rogers, Marian Sigman

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 3/2007

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Detecting early signs of autism is essential for timely diagnosis and initiation of effective interventions. Several research groups have initiated prospective studies of high-risk populations including infant siblings, to systematically collect data on early signs within a longitudinal design. Despite the potential advantages of prospective studies of young children at high-risk for autism, there are also significant methodological, ethical and practical challenges. This paper outlines several of these challenges, including those related to sampling (e.g., defining appropriate comparison groups), measurement and clinical implications (e.g., addressing the needs of infants suspected of having early signs). We suggest possible design and implementation strategies to address these various challenges, based on current research efforts in the field and previous studies involving high-risk populations.
Literatuur
go back to reference Adrien J. L., Lenoir P., Martineau J., Perrot A., Hameury L., Larmande C., & Sauvage, D. (1993). Blind ratings of early symptoms of autism based upon family home movies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 617–626. PubMedCrossRef Adrien J. L., Lenoir P., Martineau J., Perrot A., Hameury L., Larmande C., & Sauvage, D. (1993). Blind ratings of early symptoms of autism based upon family home movies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 617–626. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Allen, M. C. (1993). The high-risk infant. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 40, 479–490. PubMed Allen, M. C. (1993). The high-risk infant. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 40, 479–490. PubMed
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
go back to reference Bailey, A., Phillips, W., & Rutter, M., (1996). Autism: Towards an integration of clinical, genetic, neuropsychological, and neurobiological perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 89–126. PubMedCrossRef Bailey, A., Phillips, W., & Rutter, M., (1996). Autism: Towards an integration of clinical, genetic, neuropsychological, and neurobiological perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 89–126. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bailey, A., Palferman, S., Heavey, L., & Le Couteur, A. (1998). Autism: The phenotype in relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 369–392. PubMedCrossRef Bailey, A., Palferman, S., Heavey, L., & Le Couteur, A. (1998). Autism: The phenotype in relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 369–392. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baranek, G. (1999). Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 213–224. PubMedCrossRef Baranek, G. (1999). Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor and social behaviors at 9–12 months of age. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 213–224. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839–843. PubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839–843. PubMed
go back to reference Bolton, P. F., & Griffiths, P. D. (1997). Association of tuberous sclerosis of temporal lobes with autism and atypical autism. Lancet, 349, 392–395. PubMedCrossRef Bolton, P. F., & Griffiths, P. D. (1997). Association of tuberous sclerosis of temporal lobes with autism and atypical autism. Lancet, 349, 392–395. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bryson S, Zwaigenbaum L, & Roberts W. (2004). The early detection of autism in clinical practice. Pediatrics and Child Health, 4, 219–221. Bryson S, Zwaigenbaum L, & Roberts W. (2004). The early detection of autism in clinical practice. Pediatrics and Child Health, 4, 219–221.
go back to reference Bucher, H. U., Killer, C., Ochsner, Y., Vaihinger, S., & Fauchere, J. C. (2002). Growth, developmental milestones and health problems in the first 2 years in very preterm infants compared with term infants: A population based study. European Journal of Pediatrics, 161, 151–156. PubMedCrossRef Bucher, H. U., Killer, C., Ochsner, Y., Vaihinger, S., & Fauchere, J. C. (2002). Growth, developmental milestones and health problems in the first 2 years in very preterm infants compared with term infants: A population based study. European Journal of Pediatrics, 161, 151–156. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, J. M., Snowling, M. J. (2004). Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 631–640. PubMedCrossRef Carroll, J. M., Snowling, M. J. (2004). Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 631–640. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chang, K. D., Steiner, H., & Ketter, T. A. (2000). Psychiatric phenomenology of child and adolescent bipolar offspring. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 453–460. PubMedCrossRef Chang, K. D., Steiner, H., & Ketter, T. A. (2000). Psychiatric phenomenology of child and adolescent bipolar offspring. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 453–460. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Charman , T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockeril, H, Brown , J., & Baird G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 500–513. Charman , T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockeril, H, Brown , J., & Baird G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 500–513.
go back to reference Charman, T., Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A. (1997). Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation. Developmental Psychology, 33, 781–789. PubMedCrossRef Charman, T., Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A. (1997). Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation. Developmental Psychology, 33, 781–789. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1122. PubMedCrossRef Chawarska, K., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108–1122. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chen, D. T., Miller, F. G., & Rosenstein, D. L. (2003). Ethical aspects of research into the etiology of autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 9, 48–53. CrossRef Chen, D. T., Miller, F. G., & Rosenstein, D. L. (2003). Ethical aspects of research into the etiology of autism. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 9, 48–53. CrossRef
go back to reference Coonrod, E. E., & Stone, W. L. (2004). Early concerns of parents of children with autistic and nonautistic disorders. Infants & Young Children, 17, 258–268. CrossRef Coonrod, E. E., & Stone, W. L. (2004). Early concerns of parents of children with autistic and nonautistic disorders. Infants & Young Children, 17, 258–268. CrossRef
go back to reference Corkum, V., & Moore, C. (1998). The origins of joint visual attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 34, 28–38. PubMedCrossRef Corkum, V., & Moore, C. (1998). The origins of joint visual attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 34, 28–38. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Courchesne, E., Carper, R., & Akshoomoff, N. (2003). Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 337–344. PubMedCrossRef Courchesne, E., Carper, R., & Akshoomoff, N. (2003). Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 337–344. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crais, E., Douglas, D. D., & Campbell, C. C. (2004). The intersection of the development of gestures and intentionality. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 47, 678–694. CrossRef Crais, E., Douglas, D. D., & Campbell, C. C. (2004). The intersection of the development of gestures and intentionality. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 47, 678–694. CrossRef
go back to reference Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., Hoogstrate, J., & Selvin, S. (2002). The changing prevalence of autism in California. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 207–215. PubMedCrossRef Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., Hoogstrate, J., & Selvin, S. (2002). The changing prevalence of autism in California. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 207–215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Crow, Y. J., & Tolmie, J. L. (1998). Recurrence risks in mental retardation. Journal of Medical Genetics, 35, 177–182. PubMedCrossRef Crow, Y. J., & Tolmie, J. L. (1998). Recurrence risks in mental retardation. Journal of Medical Genetics, 35, 177–182. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cuccaro, M. L., Shao, Y., Bass, M. P., Abramson, R. K., Ravan, S. A., Wright, H. H., Wolpert, C. M., Donnelly, S. L., & Pericak-Vance, M. A. (2003). Behavioral comparisons in autistic individuals from multiplex and singleton families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 87–91. PubMedCrossRef Cuccaro, M. L., Shao, Y., Bass, M. P., Abramson, R. K., Ravan, S. A., Wright, H. H., Wolpert, C. M., Donnelly, S. L., & Pericak-Vance, M. A. (2003). Behavioral comparisons in autistic individuals from multiplex and singleton families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 87–91. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dahlgren, S. O., & Gillberg, C. (1989). Symptoms in the first two years of life. A preliminary population study of infantile autism. European Archives of Psychiatry And Neurological Sciences, 238, 169–174. PubMedCrossRef Dahlgren, S. O., & Gillberg, C. (1989). Symptoms in the first two years of life. A preliminary population study of infantile autism. European Archives of Psychiatry And Neurological Sciences, 238, 169–174. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference De Giacomo, A., Fombonne, E. (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 131–136. CrossRef De Giacomo, A., Fombonne, E. (1998). Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 131–136. CrossRef
go back to reference Dawson, G., & Osterling, J. (1997). Early intervention in autism. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), The effectiveness of early intervention. Baltimore: Brooks. Dawson, G., & Osterling, J. (1997). Early intervention in autism. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), The effectiveness of early intervention. Baltimore: Brooks.
go back to reference Dawson, G., Webb, S., Schellenberg, G. D., Dager, S., Friedman, S., Aylward, E., & Richards, T. (2002). Defining the broader phenotype of autism: Genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives. Developmental Psychopathology, 14(3), 581–611. CrossRef Dawson, G., Webb, S., Schellenberg, G. D., Dager, S., Friedman, S., Aylward, E., & Richards, T. (2002). Defining the broader phenotype of autism: Genetic, brain, and behavioral perspectives. Developmental Psychopathology, 14(3), 581–611. CrossRef
go back to reference Dawson, G., & Zanolli, K. (2003). Early intervention and brain plasticity in autism. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 251, 266–274. PubMed Dawson, G., & Zanolli, K. (2003). Early intervention and brain plasticity in autism. Novartis Foundation Symposium, 251, 266–274. PubMed
go back to reference Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (2000). Neurobehavioral deficits in offspring of schizophrenic parents: Liability indicators and predictors of illness. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 97, 65–71. PubMedCrossRef Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (2000). Neurobehavioral deficits in offspring of schizophrenic parents: Liability indicators and predictors of illness. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 97, 65–71. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Mulder, E., Volkmar, F., & Minderaa, R. (2004). Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic(ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 129–137. PubMedCrossRef de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Mulder, E., Volkmar, F., & Minderaa, R. (2004). Interrelationship between Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic(ADOS-G), Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 129–137. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Mennin, D., Gershon, J., Tsuang, M. T. (1996). A prospective four-year follow-up study of children at risk for ADHD: Psychiatric, neuropsychological, and psychosocial outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1449–1459. PubMedCrossRef Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Mennin, D., Gershon, J., Tsuang, M. T. (1996). A prospective four-year follow-up study of children at risk for ADHD: Psychiatric, neuropsychological, and psychosocial outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1449–1459. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H. Jr., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J. S., Johnson, C. P., Kallen, R. J., Levy, S. E., Minshew, N. J., Ozonoff, S., Prizant, B. M., Rapin, I., Rogers, S. J., Stone, W. L., Teplin, S., Tuchman, R. F., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 439–484. PubMedCrossRef Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H. Jr., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J. S., Johnson, C. P., Kallen, R. J., Levy, S. E., Minshew, N. J., Ozonoff, S., Prizant, B. M., Rapin, I., Rogers, S. J., Stone, W. L., Teplin, S., Tuchman, R. F., & Volkmar, F. R. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 439–484. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Folstein, S. E., Santangelo, S. L., Gilman, S. E., Piven, J., Landa, R., Lainhart, J., Hein, J., & Wzorek, M. (1999). Predictors of cognitive test patterns in autism families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1117–1128. PubMedCrossRef Folstein, S. E., Santangelo, S. L., Gilman, S. E., Piven, J., Landa, R., Lainhart, J., Hein, J., & Wzorek, M. (1999). Predictors of cognitive test patterns in autism families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 1117–1128. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fombonne, E., Bolton, P., Prior, J., Jordan, H., & Rutter, M. (1997). A family study of autism: Cognitive patterns and levels in parents and siblings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 667–683. PubMedCrossRef Fombonne, E., Bolton, P., Prior, J., Jordan, H., & Rutter, M. (1997). A family study of autism: Cognitive patterns and levels in parents and siblings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 667–683. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Geller, B., Tillman, R., Craney, J. L., & Bolhofner, K. (2004). Four-year prospective outcome and natural history of mania in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 459–467. PubMedCrossRef Geller, B., Tillman, R., Craney, J. L., & Bolhofner, K. (2004). Four-year prospective outcome and natural history of mania in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 459–467. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Heinssen, R. K., Perkins, D. O., Appelbaum, P. S., & Fenton, W. S. (2001). Informed consent in early psychosis research: National Institute of Mental Health Workshop, November 15, 2000. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 571–584. PubMed Heinssen, R. K., Perkins, D. O., Appelbaum, P. S., & Fenton, W. S. (2001). Informed consent in early psychosis research: National Institute of Mental Health Workshop, November 15, 2000. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 571–584. PubMed
go back to reference Hoshino, Y., Kumashiro, H., Yashima, Y., Tachibana, R., Watanabe, M., & Furukawa, H. (1982). Early symptoms of autistic children and its diagnostic significance. Folia Psychiatrica Neurologica Japan, 36, 367–374. Hoshino, Y., Kumashiro, H., Yashima, Y., Tachibana, R., Watanabe, M., & Furukawa, H. (1982). Early symptoms of autistic children and its diagnostic significance. Folia Psychiatrica Neurologica Japan, 36, 367–374.
go back to reference Howlin, P., & Moore, A. (1997). Diagnosis of autism: A survey of over 1200 patients in the UK. Autism, 1, 135–162. Howlin, P., & Moore, A. (1997). Diagnosis of autism: A survey of over 1200 patients in the UK. Autism, 1, 135–162.
go back to reference Hsu, H. C., & Fogel, A. (2003). Stability and transitions in mother-infant face-to-face communication during the first 6 months: A microhistorical approach. Developmental Psychology, 39, 1061–1082. PubMedCrossRef Hsu, H. C., & Fogel, A. (2003). Stability and transitions in mother-infant face-to-face communication during the first 6 months: A microhistorical approach. Developmental Psychology, 39, 1061–1082. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jarrold, C., & Brock, J. (2004). To match or not to match? Methdological issues in autism-related research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 81–86. PubMedCrossRef Jarrold, C., & Brock, J. (2004). To match or not to match? Methdological issues in autism-related research. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 81–86. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Klin, A., Chawarska, K., Rubin, E., & Volkmar, F. R. (2004). Clinical assessment of toddlers at risk of autism. In R. DelCarmen-Wiggins, & A. Carter (Eds.), Handbook of infant and toddler mental health assessment (pp. 311–336). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Klin, A., Chawarska, K., Rubin, E., & Volkmar, F. R. (2004). Clinical assessment of toddlers at risk of autism. In R. DelCarmen-Wiggins, & A. Carter (Eds.), Handbook of infant and toddler mental health assessment (pp. 311–336). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Landa, R., Folstein, S., & Isaacs, C (1991). Spontaneous narrative discourse performance of parents of autistic individuals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 1339–1345. PubMed Landa, R., Folstein, S., & Isaacs, C (1991). Spontaneous narrative discourse performance of parents of autistic individuals. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 1339–1345. PubMed
go back to reference Landa, R., Piven, J., Wzorek, M., Gayle, J., Chase, G., Folstein, S. (1992). Social language use in parents of autistic individuals. Psychological Medicine, 22, 245–254. PubMedCrossRef Landa, R., Piven, J., Wzorek, M., Gayle, J., Chase, G., Folstein, S. (1992). Social language use in parents of autistic individuals. Psychological Medicine, 22, 245–254. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Landa, R. (2003). Early identification of autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Parent, 33, 60–63. Landa, R. (2003). Early identification of autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Parent, 33, 60–63.
go back to reference Landa, R., & Garrett-Mayer, L. (2006). Development in infants with autism spectrum disorders: A prospective study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 629–638. PubMedCrossRef Landa, R., & Garrett-Mayer, L. (2006). Development in infants with autism spectrum disorders: A prospective study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 629–638. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C. (1995). Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1365–1382. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C. (1995). Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 1365–1382. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., & McGee, J. P. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Lord, C., & McGee, J. P. (2001). Educating children with autism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
go back to reference Lord, C., & Risi, S. (2000). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in young children. In A. M. Wetherby, & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorder: A transactional developmental perspective. (pp. 11–30). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Lord, C., & Risi, S. (2000). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in young children. In A. M. Wetherby, & B. M. Prizant (Eds.), Autism spectrum disorder: A transactional developmental perspective. (pp. 11–30). Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
go back to reference MacLean, J. E., Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Mahoney, W. J., Bartolucci, G., Tuff, L. (1999). Familial factors influence level of functioning in pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 382, 746–753. CrossRef MacLean, J. E., Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Mahoney, W. J., Bartolucci, G., Tuff, L. (1999). Familial factors influence level of functioning in pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 382, 746–753. CrossRef
go back to reference Maestro, S., Muratori, F., Cavallaro, M. C., Pei, F., Stern, D., Golse, B., & Palacio-Espasa, F. (2002). Attentional skills during the first 6 months of age in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1239–1245. PubMedCrossRef Maestro, S., Muratori, F., Cavallaro, M. C., Pei, F., Stern, D., Golse, B., & Palacio-Espasa, F. (2002). Attentional skills during the first 6 months of age in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1239–1245. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moore, V., & Goodson, S. (2003). How well does early diagnosis of autism stand the test of time? Autism, 7, 47–63. PubMed Moore, V., & Goodson, S. (2003). How well does early diagnosis of autism stand the test of time? Autism, 7, 47–63. PubMed
go back to reference Moore, C., & Corkum, V. (1998). Infant gaze following based on eye direction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 495–503. Moore, C., & Corkum, V. (1998). Infant gaze following based on eye direction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 495–503.
go back to reference Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1990). A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 115–128. PubMedCrossRef Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1990). A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 115–128. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Murphy, M., Bolton, P. F., Pickles, A., Fombonne, E., Piven, J., & Rutter, M. (2000). Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1411–1424. PubMedCrossRef Murphy, M., Bolton, P. F., Pickles, A., Fombonne, E., Piven, J., & Rutter, M. (2000). Personality traits of the relatives of autistic probands. Psychological Medicine, 30, 1411–1424. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ohta, M., Nagai, Y., Hara, H., & Sasaki, M. (1987). Parental perception of behavioral symptoms in Japanese autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 549–563. PubMedCrossRef Ohta, M., Nagai, Y., Hara, H., & Sasaki, M. (1987). Parental perception of behavioral symptoms in Japanese autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 549–563. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Osterling, J. A., & Dawson, G. (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 247–257. PubMedCrossRef Osterling, J. A., & Dawson, G. (1994). Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 247–257. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Osterling, J. A., Dawson, G., & Munson, J. A. (2002). Early recognition of 1-year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 239–251. PubMedCrossRef Osterling, J. A., Dawson, G., & Munson, J. A. (2002). Early recognition of 1-year-old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 239–251. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Phillips, A. T., Wellman, H. M., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Infants’ ability to connect gaze and emotional expression to intentional action. Cognition, 85, 53–78. PubMedCrossRef Phillips, A. T., Wellman, H. M., & Spelke, E. S. (2002). Infants’ ability to connect gaze and emotional expression to intentional action. Cognition, 85, 53–78. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pickles, A., Starr, E., Kazak, S., Boston, P., Papanikolaou, K., Bailey, A., Goodman, R., & Rutter, M. (2000). Variable expression of the autism broader phenotype: Findings from extended pedigrees. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 491–502. PubMedCrossRef Pickles, A., Starr, E., Kazak, S., Boston, P., Papanikolaou, K., Bailey, A., Goodman, R., & Rutter, M. (2000). Variable expression of the autism broader phenotype: Findings from extended pedigrees. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 491–502. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997). Broader autism phenotype: Evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 185–190. PubMed Piven, J., Palmer, P., Jacobi, D., Childress, D., & Arndt, S. (1997). Broader autism phenotype: Evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence families. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 185–190. PubMed
go back to reference Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Doppelt, O., Gross-Tsur, V., & Shalev, R. S. (2004). Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 855–865. PubMedCrossRef Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Doppelt, O., Gross-Tsur, V., & Shalev, R. S. (2004). Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 855–865. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Shalev, R. S., & Gross-Tsur, V. (2003). Language abilities of siblings of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 914–925. PubMedCrossRef Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Shalev, R. S., & Gross-Tsur, V. (2003). Language abilities of siblings of children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 914–925. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ritvo, E. R., Jorde, L. B., Mason-Brothers, A., Freeman, B. J., Pingree, C., Jones, M. B., McMahon, W. M., Pterson, P. B., Jenson, W., & Mo, A. (1989). The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: Recurrence risk estimates and genetic counseling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1032–1036. PubMed Ritvo, E. R., Jorde, L. B., Mason-Brothers, A., Freeman, B. J., Pingree, C., Jones, M. B., McMahon, W. M., Pterson, P. B., Jenson, W., & Mo, A. (1989). The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: Recurrence risk estimates and genetic counseling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1032–1036. PubMed
go back to reference Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. PubMedCrossRef Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 131–144. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, S. J. (1996). Brief report: Early intervention in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 243–246. PubMedCrossRef Rogers, S. J. (1996). Brief report: Early intervention in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 243–246. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, S. J. (1999). An examination of the imitation deficit in autism. In J. Nadel, & G. Butterworth (Eds.), Imitation in infancy. Cambridge studies in cognitive perceptual development. (pp. 254–283). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press. Rogers, S. J. (1999). An examination of the imitation deficit in autism. In J. Nadel, & G. Butterworth (Eds.), Imitation in infancy. Cambridge studies in cognitive perceptual development. (pp. 254–283). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
go back to reference Rogers, S. J., & DiLalla, D. L. (1990). Age of symptom onset in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 863–872. PubMedCrossRef Rogers, S. J., & DiLalla, D. L. (1990). Age of symptom onset in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 863–872. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, S. J., Wehner, D. E., & Hagerman, R. (2001). The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: Symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 409–417. Rogers, S. J., Wehner, D. E., & Hagerman, R. (2001). The behavioral phenotype in fragile X: Symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and other developmental disorders. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 409–417.
go back to reference Schubert, E. W., & McNeil, T. F. (2004). Prospective study of neurological abnormalities in offspring of women with psychosis: Birth to adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1030–1037. PubMedCrossRef Schubert, E. W., & McNeil, T. F. (2004). Prospective study of neurological abnormalities in offspring of women with psychosis: Birth to adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1030–1037. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Siegel, B., Pliner, C., Eschler, J., & Elliott, G. R. (1988). How children with autism are diagnosed: Difficulties in identification of children with multiple developmental delays. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 9, 199–204. PubMed Siegel, B., Pliner, C., Eschler, J., & Elliott, G. R. (1988). How children with autism are diagnosed: Difficulties in identification of children with multiple developmental delays. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 9, 199–204. PubMed
go back to reference Simonoff, E. (1998). Genetic counseling in autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 447–456. PubMedCrossRef Simonoff, E. (1998). Genetic counseling in autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 447–456. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J., & Tanguay, P. (1995) Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60, 19–26. Smalley, S. L., McCracken, J., & Tanguay, P. (1995) Autism, affective disorders, and social phobia. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60, 19–26.
go back to reference Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 269–285. PubMedCrossRef Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 269–285. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stone, W. L., Hoffman, E. L., Lewis, S. E., & Ousley, O. Y. (1994). Early recognition of autism: Parental reports vs. clinical observation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 148, 174–179. PubMed Stone, W. L., Hoffman, E. L., Lewis, S. E., & Ousley, O. Y. (1994). Early recognition of autism: Parental reports vs. clinical observation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 148, 174–179. PubMed
go back to reference Stone, W. L., Lee, E. B., Ashford, L., Brissie, J., Hepburn, S. L., Coonrod, E. E., & Weiss, B. H. (1999). Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under 3 years? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 219–226. PubMedCrossRef Stone, W. L., Lee, E. B., Ashford, L., Brissie, J., Hepburn, S. L., Coonrod, E. E., & Weiss, B. H. (1999). Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under 3 years? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 219–226. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stone, W. L., Ousley, O. Y., & Littleford, C. D. (1997). Motor imitation in young children with autism: What’s the object? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 475–485. PubMedCrossRef Stone, W. L., Ousley, O. Y., & Littleford, C. D. (1997). Motor imitation in young children with autism: What’s the object? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 475–485. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stromland, K., Sjogreen, L., Miller, M., Gillberg, C., Wentz, E., Johansson, M., Nylen, O., Danielsson, A., Jacobsson, C., Andersson, J., & Fernell, E. (2002). Mobius sequence–a Swedish multidiscipline study. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 6, 35–45. PubMedCrossRef Stromland, K., Sjogreen, L., Miller, M., Gillberg, C., Wentz, E., Johansson, M., Nylen, O., Danielsson, A., Jacobsson, C., Andersson, J., & Fernell, E. (2002). Mobius sequence–a Swedish multidiscipline study. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 6, 35–45. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A., Rees, L., & Wheelwright, S. (1998). The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and nonsocial stimuli in autistic, typically developing, and nonautistic developmentally delayed infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 747–753. PubMedCrossRef Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A., Rees, L., & Wheelwright, S. (1998). The frequency and distribution of spontaneous attention shifts between social and nonsocial stimuli in autistic, typically developing, and nonautistic developmentally delayed infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 747–753. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Tuff. L., Bartolucci, G., Fisman, S., & Mahoney, W. (1993). Lack of cognitive impairment in first-degree relatives of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1264–1273. PubMedCrossRef Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Tuff. L., Bartolucci, G., Fisman, S., & Mahoney, W. (1993). Lack of cognitive impairment in first-degree relatives of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1264–1273. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Zwaigenbaum, L., & MacLean, J. E. (1998). Genetics of autism: Overview and new directions. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 28, 351–368. CrossRef Szatmari, P., Jones, M. B., Zwaigenbaum, L., & MacLean, J. E. (1998). Genetics of autism: Overview and new directions. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 28, 351–368. CrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P., Maclean, J. E., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bartolucci, G., Majoney, W. J., & Tuff, L. (2000). The familial aggregation of the lesser variant in biological and nonbiological relatives of PDD probands: A family history study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 579–586. PubMedCrossRef Szatmari, P., Maclean, J. E., Jones, M. B., Bryson, S. E., Zwaigenbaum, L., Bartolucci, G., Majoney, W. J., & Tuff, L. (2000). The familial aggregation of the lesser variant in biological and nonbiological relatives of PDD probands: A family history study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 579–586. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Bryson, S. (2004). Conducting genetic epidemiology studies of autism spectrum disorders: Issues in matching. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 49–57. PubMedCrossRef Szatmari, P., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Bryson, S. (2004). Conducting genetic epidemiology studies of autism spectrum disorders: Issues in matching. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 49–57. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Thelen, E. (1981a). Kicking, rocking, and waving: Contextual analysis of stereotyped behaviour in normal infants. Animal Behaviour, 29, 3–11. CrossRef Thelen, E. (1981a). Kicking, rocking, and waving: Contextual analysis of stereotyped behaviour in normal infants. Animal Behaviour, 29, 3–11. CrossRef
go back to reference Thelen, E. (1981b). Rhythmical behavior in infancy: An ethological perspective. Developmental Psychology, 17, 237–257. CrossRef Thelen, E. (1981b). Rhythmical behavior in infancy: An ethological perspective. Developmental Psychology, 17, 237–257. CrossRef
go back to reference Tsao, F. M., Liu, H. M., & Kuhl, P. K. (2004). Speech perception in infancy predicts language development in the second year of life: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 75(4), 1067–1084. PubMedCrossRef Tsao, F. M., Liu, H. M., & Kuhl, P. K. (2004). Speech perception in infancy predicts language development in the second year of life: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 75(4), 1067–1084. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., Siegel, B., Szatmari, P., Lord, C., Campbell, M., Freeman, B. J., Cicchetti, D. V., Rutter, M., Kline W, et al. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361–1367. PubMed Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., Siegel, B., Szatmari, P., Lord, C., Campbell, M., Freeman, B. J., Cicchetti, D. V., Rutter, M., Kline W, et al. (1994). Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1361–1367. PubMed
go back to reference Volkmar, F., Lord, C., Bailey, A., Schultz, R., & Klin, A. (2004). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 135–170. PubMedCrossRef Volkmar, F., Lord, C., Bailey, A., Schultz, R., & Klin, A. (2004). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 135–170. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Werner, E., Dawson, G., Osterling, J., & Dinno, N. (2000). Brief report: Recognition of autism spectrum disorder before one year of age: A retrospective study based on home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 157–162. PubMedCrossRef Werner, E., Dawson, G., Osterling, J., & Dinno, N. (2000). Brief report: Recognition of autism spectrum disorder before one year of age: A retrospective study based on home videotapes. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 157–162. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wetherby, A., & Prizant, B. (2002). Communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile-first normed edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul H.Brookes. Wetherby, A., & Prizant, B. (2002). Communication and symbolic behavior scales developmental profile-first normed edition. Baltimore, MD: Paul H.Brookes.
go back to reference Wetherby, A. M., Woods, J., Allen, L., Cleary, J., Dickinson, H., & Lord, C. (2004). Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 473–493. PubMedCrossRef Wetherby, A. M., Woods, J., Allen, L., Cleary, J., Dickinson, H., & Lord, C. (2004). Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 473–493. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Williams, G., King, J., Cunningham, M., Stephan, M., Kerr, B., & Hersh, J. H. (2001). Fetal valproate syndrome and autism: Additional evidence of an association. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 43, 202–206. PubMedCrossRef Williams, G., King, J., Cunningham, M., Stephan, M., Kerr, B., & Hersh, J. H. (2001). Fetal valproate syndrome and autism: Additional evidence of an association. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 43, 202–206. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wimpory, D. C., Hobson, R. P., Williams, J. M. G., & Nash, S. (2000). Are infants with autism socially engaged? A study of recent retrospective parental reports. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 525–536. PubMedCrossRef Wimpory, D. C., Hobson, R. P., Williams, J. M. G., & Nash, S. (2000). Are infants with autism socially engaged? A study of recent retrospective parental reports. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 525–536. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Xu, J., Zwaigenbaum. L., Szatmari, P., & Scherer S. (2004). Molecular cytogenetics of autism: Current status and future directions. Current Genomics, 5, 347–364. CrossRef Xu, J., Zwaigenbaum. L., Szatmari, P., & Scherer S. (2004). Molecular cytogenetics of autism: Current status and future directions. Current Genomics, 5, 347–364. CrossRef
go back to reference Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA, 289, 49–55. PubMedCrossRef Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA, 289, 49–55. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yirmiya, N., & Shaked, M. (2005). Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 69–83. PubMedCrossRef Yirmiya, N., & Shaked, M. (2005). Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 69–83. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Young, R. L., Brewer, N., & Pattison C. (2003). Parental identification of early behavioural abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. Autism, 7, 125–143. PubMedCrossRef Young, R. L., Brewer, N., & Pattison C. (2003). Parental identification of early behavioural abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. Autism, 7, 125–143. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Rogers, T., Roberts W, Brian J, & Szatmari P. (2005). Behavioral markers of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neurosciences, 23, 143–152. CrossRef Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson S, Rogers, T., Roberts W, Brian J, & Szatmari P. (2005). Behavioral markers of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neurosciences, 23, 143–152. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Studying the Emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in High-risk Infants: Methodological and Practical Issues
Auteurs
Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
Audrey Thurm
Wendy Stone
Grace Baranek
Susan Bryson
Jana Iverson
Alice Kau
Ami Klin
Cathy Lord
Rebecca Landa
Sally Rogers
Marian Sigman
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2007
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 3/2007
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-006-0179-x