Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at doi:10.1007/s00426-009-0227-1 and is accessible for authorized users.
In the contextual cueing paradigm, Endo and Takeda (in Percept Psychophys 66:293–302, 2004) provided evidence that implicit learning involves selection of the aspect of a structure that is most useful to one’s task. The present study attempted to replicate this finding in artificial grammar learning to investigate whether or not implicit learning commonly involves such a selection. Participants in Experiment 1 were presented with an induction task that could be facilitated by several characteristics of the exemplars. For some participants, those characteristics included a perfectly predictive feature. The results suggested that the aspect of the structure that was most useful to the induction task was selected and learned implicitly. Experiment 2 provided evidence that, although salience affected participants’ awareness of the perfectly predictive feature, selection for implicit learning was mainly based on usefulness.
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 42 KB)426_2009_227_MOESM1_ESM.doc
Chater, N., & Vitányi, P. (2007). ‘Ideal learning’ of natural language: Positive results about learning from positive evidence. Journal of Mathematical psychology, 51, 135–163. CrossRef
Cleeremans, A. (1993). Mechanisms of implicit learning. Connectionist models of sequence processing. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Cleeremans, A. (1997). Sequence learning in a dual-stimulus setting. Psychological Research, 60, 72–86. CrossRef
Dienes, Z., & Berry, D. (1997). Implicit learning: Below the subjective threshold. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 3–23.
Dominey, P. F. (2003). Structure and function in sequence learning. Evidence from experimental, neuropsychological and simulation studies. In L. Jimenez (Ed.), Attention and Implicit learning. Advances in Consciousness Research, 48. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dulany, D. E., Carlson, R. A., & Dewey, G. I. (1984). A case of syntactical learning and judgment: How conscious and how abstract? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 541–555. CrossRef
Ellis, N. C. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305–352.
Endo, N., & Takeda, Y. (2004). Selective learning of spatial configuration and object identity in visual search. Perception and Psychophysics, 66, 293–302. PubMed
Frick, R. W., & Lee, Y. S. (1995). Implicit learning and concept learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 762–782.
Haider, H., & Frensch, P. A. (1999). Information reduction during skill acquisition: the influence of task instruction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5, 129–151. CrossRef
Jiménez, L., & Méndez, C. (1999). Which attention is needed for implicit sequence learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 25, 236–259. CrossRef
Jiménez, L., & Méndez, C. (2001). Implicit sequence learning with competing explicit cues. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 345–369.
Lambert, T. (2003). Visual orienting, learning and conscious awareness. In L. Jimenez (Ed.), Attention and Implicit learning. Advances in Consciousness Research, 48. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Mackintosh, N. J. (1971). An analysis of overshadowing and blocking. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 118–125. CrossRef
Mathews, R. C., Buss, R. R., Stanley, W. B., Blanchard-Fields, F., Cho, J. R., & Druhan, B. (1989). Role of implicit and explicit processes in learning from examples: A synergistic effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 1083–1100. CrossRef
Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1–32. CrossRef
Perlman, A., & Tzelgov, J. (2006). Interactions between encoding and retrieval in the domain of sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psycholog: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 118–130. CrossRef
Perruchet, P., & Pacteau, C. (1990). Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 264–275. CrossRef
Poletiek, F.H., & Chater, N. (2006). Grammar induction profits from representative stimulus sampling. In Proceedings of the 28 th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1968–1973.
Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 855–863. CrossRef
Reber, A. S. (1976). Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 88–94. CrossRef
Reber, A. S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. London: Oxford University Press.
Reber, A. S., Kassin, S. M., Lewis, S., & Cantor, G. (1980). On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human learning and Memory, 6, 492–502. CrossRef
Rescorla, R. A., & Holland, P. C. (1982). Behavioral studies of associative learning in animals. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 265–308. CrossRef
Shanks, D. R., & St. John, M. F. (1994). Characteristics of dissociable human learning systemts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 367–447. CrossRef
Turner, C. W., & Fischler, I. S. (1993). Speeded tests of implicit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 1165–1177. CrossRef
Whittlesea, B. W. A., & Dorken, M. D. (1993). Incidentally, things in general are particularly determined: An episodic-processing account of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 227–248. CrossRef
Wright, R. L., & Whittlesea, B. W. A. (1998). Implicit learning of complex structures: active adaptation and selective processing in acquisition and application. Memory & Cognition, 26, 402–420.
- Structural selection in implicit learning of artificial grammars
Esther van den Bos
Fenna H. Poletiek