Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3215-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
We re-evaluate conclusions about disfluency production in high-functioning forms of autism spectrum disorder (HFA). Previous studies examined individuals with HFA to address a theoretical question regarding speaker- and listener-oriented disfluencies. Individuals with HFA tend to be self-centric and have poor pragmatic language skills, and should be less likely to produce listener-oriented disfluency. However, previous studies did not account for individual differences variables that affect disfluency. We show that both matched and unmatched controls produce fewer repairs than individuals with HFA. For silent pauses, there was no difference between matched controls and HFA, but both groups produced more than unmatched controls. These results identify limitations in prior research and shed light on the relationship between autism spectrum disorders and disfluent speech.
Bailey, K. G. B, & Ferreira, F. (2003). Disfluencies influence syntactic parsing. Journal of Memory and Language, 49, 183–200. CrossRef
Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 1, 65–94. CrossRef
Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (2006). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Barr, D. J. (2001). Trouble in mind: Paralinguistic indices of effort and uncertainty in communication. In C. Cavé, I. Guaïtella & S. Santi (Eds.), Oralité et gestualité: Interactions et comportements multimodaux dans la communication (pp. 597–600). Paris: L’Harmattan.
Belardi, K. M., & Williams, D. L. (2009). Disruptions in spontaneous language in HFA: Indicators of linguistic processing challenges. Presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research, Chicago.
Berg, T., & Schade, U. (1992). The role of inhibition in a spreading activation model of language production, Part 1: The psycholinguistic perspective. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 22, 405–434.
Bishop, D. V. M., Mayberry, M., Maley, A., Wong, D., Hill, W., & Hallmayer, J. (2004). Using self-report to identify the broad phenotype in parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders: A study using the autism-spectrum quotient. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1431–1436. CrossRefPubMed
Bock, J. K., & Levelt, W. J. M. (1994). Language production: Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 945–984). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bock, K. (1996). Language production: Methods and methodologies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 395–421. CrossRef
Brennan, S. E., & Williams, M. (1995). The feeling of another’s knowing: Prosody and filled pauses as cues to listeners about the metacognitive states of speakers. Journal of Memory and Language, 34, 383–398. CrossRef
Clark, H. H. (1994). Managing problems in speaking. Speech Communication, 15, 243–250. CrossRef
De Jong, N. H., & Bosker H. R. (2013). Choosing a threshold for silent pauses to measure second language fluency. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech.
Deese, J. (1984). Pauses, prosody, and the demands of production in language. In H. W. Dechert & M. Raupach (Eds.), Temporal Variables in Speech (pp. 69–84). The Hague: Mouton.
Engelhardt, P. E., Corley, M., Nigg, J. T., & Ferreira, F. (2010). The role of inhibition in the production of disfluencies. Memory & Cognition, 38, 617–628. CrossRef
Engelhardt, P. E., Nigg, J. T., & Ferreira, F. (2017). Executive control and intelligence in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity: An individual differences investigation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 1263–1281. CrossRef
Ferreira, F. (1991). Effects of length and syntactic complexity on initiation times for prepared utterances. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 210–233. CrossRef
Ferreira, F. (2007). Prosody and performance in language production. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22, 1151–1177. CrossRef
Ferreira, F., & Bailey, K. G. D. (2004). Disfluencies and human language comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8, 231–237. CrossRef
Ferreira, F., & Engelhardt, P. E. (2006). Syntax and production. In M. Traxler & M. A. Gernsbacher (Eds.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 61–91). Oxford: Elsevier Inc. CrossRef
Ferreira, F., Lau, E. F., & Bailey, K. G. D. (2004). Disfluencies, parsing, and tree-adjoining grammars. Cognitive Science, 28, 721–749. CrossRef
Fox Tree, J. E. (1995). Effects of false starts and repetitions on the processing of subsequent words in spontaneous speech. Journal of Memory and Language, 34, 709–738. CrossRef
Garrett, M. F. (1982). Production of speech: Observations from normal and pathological language use. In A. Ellis (Ed.), Normality and pathology in cognitive functions (pp. 19–76). London: Academic Press.
Golden, C. J. (1978). Stroop color and word test: A manual for clinical and experimental issues. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.
Goldman-Eisler, F. (1968). Psycholinguistics: Experiments in spontaneous speech. New York: Academic Press.
Harley, T. A. (2013). The psychology of language: From data to theory. New York: Psychology Press.
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
Kormos, J., & Denes, M. (2004). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners. System, 32, 145–164. CrossRef
Lau, E., & Ferreira, F. (2005). Lingering effects of disfluent material on comprehension of garden path sentences. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20, 633–666. CrossRef
Levelt, W. J. M. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Logan, G. D. (1994). On the ability to inhibit thought and action: A user’s guide to the stop signal paradigm. In D. Dagenbach & T. H. Carr (Eds.), Inhibitory processes in attention, memory, and language (pp. 189–239). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Lowder, M., & Ferreira, F. (2016). Prediction in the processing of repair disfluencies. Language, Cognition, & Neuroscience, 31, 73–79. CrossRef
Maclay, H., & Osgood, C. E. (1959). Hesitation phenomenon in spontaneous English speech. Word, 15, 19–44. CrossRef
Monsell, S. (1996). Control of mental processes. In V. Bruce (Ed.), Unsolved mysteries of the mind: Tutorial essays in cognition (pp. 93–148). Hove: Erlbaum.
Nigg, J. T., Carr, L. A., Martel, M. M., & Henderson, J. M. (2007). Concepts of inhibition and developmental psychopathology. In C. MacCleod & D. Gorfein (Eds.), Inhibition in cognition (pp. 259–277). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. CrossRef
Nooteboom, S. G. (1980). Speaking and unspeaking: Detection and correction of phonological and lexical errors in spontaneous speech. In V. A. Fromkin (Ed.), Errors in linguistic performance: Slips of the tongue, ear, pen, and hand. New York: Academic Press.
O’Connell, D. C., & Kowal, S. (2005). Uh and Um revisited: Are they interjections for signaling delay? Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 31, 555–576. CrossRef
Oram, J., Fine, J., Okamoto, C., & Tannock, R. (1999). Assessing the language of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 72–80. CrossRef
Park, C. J., Yelland, G. W., Taffe, J. R., & Gray, K. M. (2012). Morphological and syntactic skills in language samples of pre-school aged children with autism: atypical development? International Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 14, 95–108. CrossRef
Pickering, M. J., & Branigan, H. P. (1998). The representation of verbs: Evidence from syntactic persistence in written language production. Journal of Memory & Language, 39, 633–651. CrossRef
Pickering, M. J., & Garrod, S. (2004). Towards a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 169–226. PubMed
Redmond, S. M. (2004). Conversational profiles of children with ADHD, SLI, and typical development. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 18, 107–125. CrossRef
Scott, K. S. (2015). Dysfluency in autism spectrum disorders. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 193, 239–245. CrossRef
Shafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177. CrossRef
Shriberg, E. (1996). Disfluencies in Switchboard. Proceedings, International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP), Vol. Addendum, 11–14. Philadelphia, PA, 3–6 October.
Shriberg, E. E. (1994). Preliminaries to a theory of speech disfluencies. PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
Slocombe, K. E., Alvarez, I., Branigan, H. P., Jellema, T., Burnett, H. G., Fischer, A., Hei Li, Y., Garrod, S., & Levita, L. (2012). Linguistic alignment in adults with and without Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1423–1436. CrossRef
Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Hillsdale: Earlbaum.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643–662. CrossRef
Tager-Flusberg, H., Paul, R., & Lord, C. (2005). Language and communication in autism. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, Vol. 1: Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior (3rd ed., pp. 335–364). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Tannock, R., & Schachar, R. (1996). Executive dysfunction as an underlying mechanism of behavior and language problems in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In J. Beitchman, N. Cohen, M. M. Konstantearas & R. Tannock (Eds.), Language, learning, and behavior disorders (pp. 128–155). Cambridge: University Press.
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wilcox, R. R., Keselman, H. J., & Kowalchuk, R. K. (1998). Can tests for treatment group equality be improved? The bootstrap and trimmed means conjecture. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 51, 123–134. CrossRef
Zentall, S. S., Gohs, D. E., & Culatta, B. (1983). Language and activity of hyperactive and comparison children during listening tasks. Exceptional Children, 50, 255–266. CrossRef
- Speaker-Versus Listener-Oriented Disfluency: A Re-examination of Arguments and Assumptions from Autism Spectrum Disorder
Paul E. Engelhardt
Mhairi E. G. McMullon
- Springer US