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12-11-2020 | Original Article – Study Design Article Open Access

Sonothrombolysis in the ambulance for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: rationale and protocol

Netherlands Heart Journal
S. El Kadi, T. R. Porter, A. C. van Rossum, O. Kamp



Treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has improved over the years. Current challenges in the management of STEMI are achievement of early reperfusion and the prevention of microvascular injury. Sonothrombolysis has emerged as a potential treatment for acute myocardial infarction, both for epicardial recanalisation as well as improving microvascular perfusion. This study aims to determine safety and feasibility of sonothrombolysis application in STEMI patients in the ambulance.


Ten patients with STEMI will be included and treated with sonothrombolysis in the ambulance during transfer to the PCI centre. Safety will be assessed by the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias and shock during sonothrombolysis intervention. Feasibility will be assessed by the extent of protocol completion and myocardial visibility. Efficacy will be determined by angiographic patency rate, ST-elevation resolution, infarct size and left ventricular volumes, and function measured with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and contrast and strain echocardiography. A comparison will be made with matched controls using an existing STEMI database.


Sonothrombolysis is a novel technique for the treatment of cardiovascular thromboembolic disease. The first clinical trials on its use for STEMI have demonstrated promising results. This study will be the first to examine the feasibility of in-ambulance sonothrombolysis for STEMI.

Trial registration

EU Clinical Trials Register (identifier: 2019-001883-31), registered 2020-02-25.

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Netherlands Heart Journal

Het Netherlands Heart Journal wordt uitgegeven in samenwerking met de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Cardiologie en de Nederlandse Hartstichting. Het tijdschrift is Engelstalig en wordt gratis beschikbaa ...

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