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29-07-2020 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 10/2020 Open Access

Mindfulness 10/2020

Soles of the Feet Meditation Intervention for People with Intellectual Disability and Problems with Anger and Aggression—a Feasibility Study

Mindfulness > Uitgave 10/2020
Judith L. Roberts, Jonathan Williams, Gemma Maria Griffith, Robert S. P. Jones, Richard P. Hastings, Rebecca Crane, Lucy Bryning, Zoe Hoare, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12671-020-01454-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as the ‘Soles of the Feet’ (SoF) meditation have been shown to be effective for reducing aggressive behavior in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Research on SoF has shown promising results in the USA but there is an absence of evidence for the approach in the United Kingdom (UK). The aim of this research was to adapt SoF for the UK and to assess the feasibility and cost of implementing the SoF intervention in a UK healthcare setting (UK SoF).


The UK SoF intervention consisted of a manualized protocol delivered over a six-week period by National Health Service staff to people with ID and their carers. This was a single-arm study with three measurement time points (baseline and 2- and 6-month follow-ups).


The UK SoF intervention was shown to be feasible, with recruitment, retention, and adherence figures exceeding the minimum cut-off of 50%. Costs were £2426 per participant, or £2766 when including set-up costs such as therapist training. Although not a primary aim, data suggest that at 6-month follow-up, there was a reduction in scores for anger and aggressive behavior, and depression and anxiety showed improvement. In addition, people with ID were able to self-report on their health-related quality of life.


This study has indicated areas where the protocol could be further improved, and it is recommended that the research should move to a pilot trial before the development of a full randomized control trial.

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