Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 8/2019

29-06-2019 | Empirical Research

Socioeconomic Status, Vocational Aspirations, School Tracks, and Occupational Attainment in South Korea

Auteurs: Bora Lee, Soo-yong Byun

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 8/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Adults’ career choice is not an abrupt event, but an outcome of continuous development throughout childhood and adolescence. In the developmental process of one’s career, personal characteristics and contextual resources come into play. The goal of the present study is to examine how family socioeconomic status, adolescents’ vocational aspirations, and high school contexts affect their occupational attainment in young adulthood, using two cohorts of data from the Korean Education and Employment Panel. Cohort 1 consisted of 1535 individuals (49.3% female), and cohort 2 consisted of 1473 individuals (53.5% female). Both cohorts were surveyed during their senior year of high school (Time 1; Mage = 17.8) and followed up until young adulthood (Time 2; Mage = 25.8). The results reveal that having high vocational aspirations and attending academic high school predict attaining higher-status occupations for both cohorts. Family background has positive direct and indirect effects on occupational attainment for cohort 2, while it only has an indirect effect on occupational attainment via types of high school for cohort 1. Implications in the context of constructing social systems to support adolescents’ career development are discussed.
Voetnoten
1
Korea’s educational system consists of three levels: primary school (grades 1–6), middle school (grades 7–9), and high school (grades 10–12). Primary and middle school are compulsory, and there is no between-school tracking at these levels. Upon graduation from middle school, students move into either an academic or a vocational high school. Beginning in the 11th grade, academic high schools offer two curriculum tracks: liberal arts (i.e., humanities and social sciences) and natural sciences (i.e., math and science). The choice of which curriculum track to follow is determined largely based on student preference rather than on academic achievement (Byun et al. 2012; Byun and Park 2017).
 
2
The birth year of the adolescent participant was asked to parents (or guardians) in the base year of the KEEP study.Age was calculated by deducting the birth year from the data collection year. Coincidentally, this resulted in thesame mean age in both cohorts.
 
3
For example, the KECO system does not classify teachers (code 045) in much detail, but the ISCO-08 system has three subgroups: vocational teachers (group 2320, ISEI score of 65), secondary teachers (group 2330, ISEI score of 71), and primary and early-childhood teachers (group 2340, ISEI score of 57). In this case, the average score of the three prestige scores of the ISCO-08 occupations was used. Using this coding method, physicians, teachers, and assemblers were assigned scores of 89.0, 64.3, and 29.0, respectively.
 
4
In an earlier phase of the current study, we used parental occupational and household income only as indicators of SES. Model estimates of the path coefficients were almost identical between the 2-indicator and 3-indicator model.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480.
go back to reference Ashby, J. S., & Schoon, I. (2010). Career success: the role of teenage career aspirations, ambition value and gender in predicting adult social status and earnings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 350–360. CrossRef Ashby, J. S., & Schoon, I. (2010). Career success: the role of teenage career aspirations, ambition value and gender in predicting adult social status and earnings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 350–360. CrossRef
go back to reference Beal, S. J., & Crockett, L. J. (2010). Adolescents’ occupational and educational aspirations and expectations: links to high school activities and adult educational attainment. Developmental Psychology, 46, 258–265. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Beal, S. J., & Crockett, L. J. (2010). Adolescents’ occupational and educational aspirations and expectations: links to high school activities and adult educational attainment. Developmental Psychology, 46, 258–265. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American occupational structure. New York, NY: Wiley. Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American occupational structure. New York, NY: Wiley.
go back to reference Bryant, B. K., Zvonkovic, A. M., & Reynolds, P. (2006). Parenting in relation to child and adolescent vocational development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 149–175. CrossRef Bryant, B. K., Zvonkovic, A. M., & Reynolds, P. (2006). Parenting in relation to child and adolescent vocational development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 149–175. CrossRef
go back to reference Byun, S., & Park, H. (2017). When everyone goes to college: effectively maintained inequality of educational opportunity in South Korea. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(1), 94–113. CrossRef Byun, S., & Park, H. (2017). When everyone goes to college: effectively maintained inequality of educational opportunity in South Korea. American Behavioral Scientist, 61(1), 94–113. CrossRef
go back to reference Croll, P. (2008). Occupational choice, socio-economic status and educational attainment: a study of the occupational choices and destinations of young people in the British Household Panel Survey. Research Papers in Education, 23, 243–268. CrossRef Croll, P. (2008). Occupational choice, socio-economic status and educational attainment: a study of the occupational choices and destinations of young people in the British Household Panel Survey. Research Papers in Education, 23, 243–268. CrossRef
go back to reference Eichhorst, W. (2015). Does vocational training help young people find a (good) job? IZA World of Labor, 112. Eichhorst, W. (2015). Does vocational training help young people find a (good) job? IZA World of Labor, 112.
go back to reference Flores, L. Y., & O'brien, K. M. (2002). The career development of Mexican American adolescent women: A test of social cognitive career theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(1), 14–27. Flores, L. Y., & O'brien, K. M. (2002). The career development of Mexican American adolescent women: A test of social cognitive career theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(1), 14–27.
go back to reference Ford, M. E. (1992). Motivating humans: goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. CrossRef Ford, M. E. (1992). Motivating humans: goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. CrossRef
go back to reference Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Alker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M., & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 195–209. CrossRef Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Alker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M., & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 195–209. CrossRef
go back to reference Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6(1), 35–45. Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6(1), 35–45.
go back to reference Howard, J. A. S., Carlstrom, A. H., Katz, A. D., Chew, A. Y., Ray, G. C., Laine, L., & Caulum, D. (2011). Career aspirations of youth: untangling race/ethnicity, SES, and gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 98–109. CrossRef Howard, J. A. S., Carlstrom, A. H., Katz, A. D., Chew, A. Y., Ray, G. C., Laine, L., & Caulum, D. (2011). Career aspirations of youth: untangling race/ethnicity, SES, and gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 98–109. CrossRef
go back to reference Inoue, I. (1999). The educational and occupational attainment process: The role of adolescent status aspirations. New York: University Press of America. Inoue, I. (1999). The educational and occupational attainment process: The role of adolescent status aspirations. New York: University Press of America.
go back to reference Jang, S. (2008). The qualitative research on the reentry process of highly educated housewives to their job market. The Women’s Studies, 74(1), 79–104. CrossRef Jang, S. (2008). The qualitative research on the reentry process of highly educated housewives to their job market. The Women’s Studies, 74(1), 79–104. CrossRef
go back to reference Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1969). Class, occupation, and orientation. American Sociological Review, 34(5), 659–678. CrossRefPubMed Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1969). Class, occupation, and orientation. American Sociological Review, 34(5), 659–678. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Korean Educational Development Institute (2018). Statistical yearbook of education. Jincheon, South Korea: Korean Educational Development Institute. Korean Educational Development Institute (2018). Statistical yearbook of education. Jincheon, South Korea: Korean Educational Development Institute.
go back to reference Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
go back to reference Lawson, K. M. (2018). Mechanisms underlying parent–child occupational consistency: a critical review. Community, Work & Family, 21(3), 272–291. CrossRef Lawson, K. M. (2018). Mechanisms underlying parent–child occupational consistency: a critical review. Community, Work & Family, 21(3), 272–291. CrossRef
go back to reference Lawson, K. M., Lee, B., Crouter, A. C., & McHale, S. M. (2018). Correlates of gendered vocational development from middle childhood to young adulthood. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 209–221. CrossRef Lawson, K. M., Lee, B., Crouter, A. C., & McHale, S. M. (2018). Correlates of gendered vocational development from middle childhood to young adulthood. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 209–221. CrossRef
go back to reference Lee, B., & Porfeli, E. J. (2015). Youths’ socialization to work and school within the family. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 15(2), 145–162. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lee, B., & Porfeli, E. J. (2015). Youths’ socialization to work and school within the family. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 15(2), 145–162. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, B. G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79–122. CrossRef Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, B. G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79–122. CrossRef
go back to reference Lueptow, L. B., McClendon, M. J., & McKeon, J. W. (1979). Father’s occupation and son’s personality: findings and questions for the emerging linkage hypothesis. The Sociological Quarterly, 20(4), 463–475. CrossRef Lueptow, L. B., McClendon, M. J., & McKeon, J. W. (1979). Father’s occupation and son’s personality: findings and questions for the emerging linkage hypothesis. The Sociological Quarterly, 20(4), 463–475. CrossRef
go back to reference McNeal, Jr. R. B. (1999). Parental involvement as social capital: differential effectiveness on science achievement, truancy, and dropping out. Social Forces, 78, 117–144. CrossRef McNeal, Jr. R. B. (1999). Parental involvement as social capital: differential effectiveness on science achievement, truancy, and dropping out. Social Forces, 78, 117–144. CrossRef
go back to reference Mello, Z. R. (2008). Gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations and attainment from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1069–1080. CrossRefPubMed Mello, Z. R. (2008). Gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations and attainment from adolescence to adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1069–1080. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Park, H., Byun, S., & Kim, K. (2011). Parental involvement and students’ cognitive outcomes in Korea: Focusing on private tutoring. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 3–22. CrossRef Park, H., Byun, S., & Kim, K. (2011). Parental involvement and students’ cognitive outcomes in Korea: Focusing on private tutoring. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 3–22. CrossRef
go back to reference Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Who participates? Accounting for longitudinal retention in the MIDUS national study of health and well-being. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(3), 307–331. Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Who participates? Accounting for longitudinal retention in the MIDUS national study of health and well-being. Journal of Aging and Health, 22(3), 307–331.
go back to reference Rojewski, J. W. (2007). Occupational and educational aspirations. In V. B. Skorikov & W. Patton (Eds), Career development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 87–104). Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Sense. Rojewski, J. W. (2007). Occupational and educational aspirations. In V. B. Skorikov & W. Patton (Eds), Career development in childhood and adolescence (pp. 87–104). Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Sense.
go back to reference Schindler, S. (2017). School tracking, educational mobility and inequality in German secondary education: developments across cohorts. European Societies, 19(1), 28–48. CrossRef Schindler, S. (2017). School tracking, educational mobility and inequality in German secondary education: developments across cohorts. European Societies, 19(1), 28–48. CrossRef
go back to reference Schoon, I. (2001). Teenage job aspirations and career attainment in adulthood: A 17-year follow-up study of teenagers who aspired to become scientists, health professionals, or engineers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(2), 124–132. Schoon, I. (2001). Teenage job aspirations and career attainment in adulthood: A 17-year follow-up study of teenagers who aspired to become scientists, health professionals, or engineers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(2), 124–132.
go back to reference Schoon, I., & Parsons, S. (2002). Teenage aspirations for future careers and occupational outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 262–288. CrossRef Schoon, I., & Parsons, S. (2002). Teenage aspirations for future careers and occupational outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 262–288. CrossRef
go back to reference Sewell, W. H., Haller, A. O., & Portes, A. (1969). The educational and early occupational attainment process. American Sociological Review, 34(1), 82–92. CrossRef Sewell, W. H., Haller, A. O., & Portes, A. (1969). The educational and early occupational attainment process. American Sociological Review, 34(1), 82–92. CrossRef
go back to reference Staff, J., Harris, A., Sabates, R., & Briddell, L. (2010). Uncertainty in early vocational aspirations: role exploration or aimlessness? Social Forces, 89(2), 659–683. CrossRef Staff, J., Harris, A., Sabates, R., & Briddell, L. (2010). Uncertainty in early vocational aspirations: role exploration or aimlessness? Social Forces, 89(2), 659–683. CrossRef
go back to reference Statistics Korea (2017). Labor force participating population survey in May 2017: results from the youth survey. Daejon, South Korea: Statistics Korea. Statistics Korea (2017). Labor force participating population survey in May 2017: results from the youth survey. Daejon, South Korea: Statistics Korea.
go back to reference Super, D. E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 8(5), 185–190. CrossRef Super, D. E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 8(5), 185–190. CrossRef
go back to reference Vondracek, F. W., Lerner, R. M., & Schulenberg, J. E. (1986). Career development: a life-span developmental approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Vondracek, F. W., Lerner, R. M., & Schulenberg, J. E. (1986). Career development: a life-span developmental approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Metagegevens
Titel
Socioeconomic Status, Vocational Aspirations, School Tracks, and Occupational Attainment in South Korea
Auteurs
Bora Lee
Soo-yong Byun
Publicatiedatum
29-06-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 8/2019
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01056-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 8/2019

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 8/2019 Naar de uitgave