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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2016

24-03-2016 | Empirical Research

Social Risk Factors of Black and White Adolescents’ Substance Use: The Differential Role of Siblings and Best Friends

Auteur: Zachary R. Rowan

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 7/2016

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Abstract

Efforts to understand peer influence among adolescents have established the robust relationship between having substance using peers and future substance use. Still, research suggests that peer influence affects different types of adolescents in different ways. Black adolescents may be less susceptible to friends compared to white adolescents and possess stronger family-orientation, suggesting that siblings may affect deviance of Black adolescents whereas friends will have a minimal impact. This study used data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to evaluate the relative strength of best friend and siblings’ influence as risk factors for Black and White adolescents’ alcohol and cigarette use. Approximately 182 Black sibling pairs (37 % male) and 657 white sibling pairs (46 % male) that ranged in ages from 11 to 19 were in the longitudinal analyses for the current study. The findings demonstrated that sibling and best friends’ substance use explained white adolescents’ cigarette and alcohol use, whereas Black adolescents’ cigarette and alcohol use was predominantly explained by siblings’ substance use. Ultimately, the results indicated the nuanced role that two types of peers have in explaining variation in substance use across Black and White adolescents.
Voetnoten
1
The influence of siblings across a range of studies have been found to be conditioned by whether the sibling pair was of the same sex, closer in age, birth order, and from higher conflict families (e.g., Rowe and Gulley 1992; Slomkowski et al. 2001, 2005; Trim et al. 2006). Thus, the strength and presence of sibling influence may not be uniformly experienced by all individuals and is conditioned by several of the structural features of the “sibling constellation” (see review in Dunn 1983). The current study assessed whether the age-gap or birth order of the sibling pairs impacted the results in supplementary analyses. Neither of these factors conditioned the influence of siblings for Black or White adolescents and are therefore not included in the main results.
 
2
Past research has demonstrated the importance of best-friends in explaining delinquent behavior (e.g., Rees and Pogarsky 2011; Selfhout et al. 2008; Vitaro et al. 2000). Additionally, compared to the entire friendship group a best friend provides a more suitable comparison to an individual sibling.
 
3
Of note, the same models were run with subject’s same-sex friendship group smoking and drinking behavior as a comparison to sibling smoking and drinking instead of only focusing on the same-sex best friend. The same substantive results emerged.
 
4
Of note, DiPietro and McGloin (2012) found that first generation immigrant youth are less likely to have deviant friends, however, when exposed to deviant friends these youth were more susceptible to deviant influence.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Social Risk Factors of Black and White Adolescents’ Substance Use: The Differential Role of Siblings and Best Friends
Auteur
Zachary R. Rowan
Publicatiedatum
24-03-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 7/2016
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0473-7

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