Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 9/2019

04-06-2019 | Original Paper

Social Avoidance Emerges in Infancy and Persists into Adulthood in Fragile X Syndrome

Auteurs: Jane Roberts, Hayley Crawford, Abigail L. Hogan, Amanda Fairchild, Bridgette Tonnsen, Alexis Brewe, Shannon O’Connor, Douglas A. Roberts, Leonard Abbeduto

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 9/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is characterized by both social approach and social avoidance. However, the age of emergence and developmental trajectory of social avoidance has not been examined. This study investigates the longitudinal developmental trajectory and dynamic nature of social avoidance in males with FXS from infancy through young adulthood (n = 191). Multiple facets of social avoidance were collected using the Social Avoidance Scale (Roberts et al. 2007, 2009). Overall, 81% of males with FXS displayed social avoidance, which emerged during infancy, increased in severity across childhood, and stabilized through adolescence and early adulthood. An exaggerated “warm up” effect was also observed in FXS. This study delineates the complex profile of social avoidance, a common and impairing behavioral feature of FXS.
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles: An integrated system of multi-informant assessment. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families.
go back to reference Baker, S., Hooper, S., Skinner, M., Hatton, D., Schaaf, J., Ornstein, P., et al. (2011). Working memory subsystems and task complexity in young boys with Fragile X syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(1), 19–29. CrossRefPubMed Baker, S., Hooper, S., Skinner, M., Hatton, D., Schaaf, J., Ornstein, P., et al. (2011). Working memory subsystems and task complexity in young boys with Fragile X syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(1), 19–29. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Beadle-Brown, J., Murphy, G., & Wing, L. (2005). Long-term outcome for people with severe intellectual disabilities: Impact of social impairment. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 110(1), 1–12. CrossRef Beadle-Brown, J., Murphy, G., & Wing, L. (2005). Long-term outcome for people with severe intellectual disabilities: Impact of social impairment. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 110(1), 1–12. CrossRef
go back to reference Bretherton, I., & Ainsworth, M. (1974). Responses of one-year-olds to a stranger in a strange situation. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The origins of fear: The origins of behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 131–164). New York: Wiley. Bretherton, I., & Ainsworth, M. (1974). Responses of one-year-olds to a stranger in a strange situation. In M. Lewis & L. Rosenblum (Eds.), The origins of fear: The origins of behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 131–164). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Davidson, R. J., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: Normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes. Developmental Science, 16, 864–878. PubMedPubMedCentral Brooker, R. J., Buss, K. A., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Aksan, N., Davidson, R. J., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2013). The development of stranger fear in infancy and toddlerhood: Normative development, individual differences, antecedents, and outcomes. Developmental Science, 16, 864–878. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Clauss, J., & Blackford, J. (2012). Behavioral inhibition and risk for developing social anxiety disorder: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(10), 1066–1075. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Clauss, J., & Blackford, J. (2012). Behavioral inhibition and risk for developing social anxiety disorder: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(10), 1066–1075. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Cohen, I. L., Fisch, G. S., Sudhalter, V., Wolf-Schein, E. G., Hanson, D., Hagerman, R., et al. (1988). Social gaze, social avoidance, and repetitive behavior in fragile X males: A controlled study. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 92(5), 436–446. PubMed Cohen, I. L., Fisch, G. S., Sudhalter, V., Wolf-Schein, E. G., Hanson, D., Hagerman, R., et al. (1988). Social gaze, social avoidance, and repetitive behavior in fragile X males: A controlled study. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 92(5), 436–446. PubMed
go back to reference Cornish, K., Turk, J., & Hagerman, R. (2008). The fragile X continuum: New advances and perspectives. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(6), 469–482. CrossRefPubMed Cornish, K., Turk, J., & Hagerman, R. (2008). The fragile X continuum: New advances and perspectives. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(6), 469–482. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Crawford, D. C., Acuna, J. M., & Sherman, S. L. (2001). FMR1 and the fragile X syndrome: Human genome epidemiology review. Genetics in Medicine, 3(5), 359–371. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Crawford, D. C., Acuna, J. M., & Sherman, S. L. (2001). FMR1 and the fragile X syndrome: Human genome epidemiology review. Genetics in Medicine, 3(5), 359–371. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Ene, M., Leighton, E. A., Blue, G. L., & Bell, B.A. (2015). Proceedings from the SAS Global Forum 2015: Multilevel models for categorical data using SAS PROC GLIMMIX: The basics, paper no. 3430- 2015. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc. Ene, M., Leighton, E. A., Blue, G. L., & Bell, B.A. (2015). Proceedings from the SAS Global Forum 2015: Multilevel models for categorical data using SAS PROC GLIMMIX: The basics, paper no. 3430- 2015. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
go back to reference Esbensen, A. J., Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., & Ruedrich, S. (2003). Reliability and validity of an assessment instrument for anxiety, depression, and mood among individuals with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(6), 617–629. CrossRefPubMed Esbensen, A. J., Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., & Ruedrich, S. (2003). Reliability and validity of an assessment instrument for anxiety, depression, and mood among individuals with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33(6), 617–629. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hall, S., DeBernardis, M., & Reiss, A. L. (2006). Social escape behaviors in children with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 935–947. CrossRefPubMed Hall, S., DeBernardis, M., & Reiss, A. L. (2006). Social escape behaviors in children with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 935–947. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hall, S., Lightbody, A. A., Huffman, L. C., Lazzeroni, L. C., & Reiss, A. L. (2009). Physiological correlates of social avoidance behavior in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(3), 320–329. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Hall, S., Lightbody, A. A., Huffman, L. C., Lazzeroni, L. C., & Reiss, A. L. (2009). Physiological correlates of social avoidance behavior in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(3), 320–329. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hall, S., & Venema, K. (2017). A screening tool to measure eye contact avoidance in boys with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(7), 2254–2264. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Hall, S., & Venema, K. (2017). A screening tool to measure eye contact avoidance in boys with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(7), 2254–2264. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Hall, S. S. (2015). Treatments for fragile X syndrome: A closer look at the data. Journal of Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15(4), 353–360. CrossRef Hall, S. S. (2015). Treatments for fragile X syndrome: A closer look at the data. Journal of Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15(4), 353–360. CrossRef
go back to reference Hall, S. S., Lightbody, A. A., McCarthy, B. E., Parker, K. J., & Reiss, A. L. (2012). Effects of intranasal oxytocin on social anxiety in males with fragile X syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(4), 509–518. CrossRefPubMed Hall, S. S., Lightbody, A. A., McCarthy, B. E., Parker, K. J., & Reiss, A. L. (2012). Effects of intranasal oxytocin on social anxiety in males with fragile X syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(4), 509–518. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hessl, D., Glaser, B., Dyer-Friedman, J., & Reiss, A. L. (2006). Social behavior and cortisol reactivity in children with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 47(6), 602–610. CrossRefPubMed Hessl, D., Glaser, B., Dyer-Friedman, J., & Reiss, A. L. (2006). Social behavior and cortisol reactivity in children with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 47(6), 602–610. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kaldewaij, R., Koch, S. B., Volman, I., Toni, I., & Roelofs, K. (2017). On the control of social approach-avoidance behavior: Neural and endocrine mechanisms. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 30, 275–293. CrossRef Kaldewaij, R., Koch, S. B., Volman, I., Toni, I., & Roelofs, K. (2017). On the control of social approach-avoidance behavior: Neural and endocrine mechanisms. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 30, 275–293. CrossRef
go back to reference Kampman, O., Viikki, M., Jarventausta, K., & Leinonen, E. (2014). Meta-analysis of anxiety disorders and temperament. Neuropsychobiology, 69(3), 175–186. CrossRefPubMed Kampman, O., Viikki, M., Jarventausta, K., & Leinonen, E. (2014). Meta-analysis of anxiety disorders and temperament. Neuropsychobiology, 69(3), 175–186. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Farran, E. K. (2011). Williams syndrome: A model for the neuroconstructivist approach. In E. K. Farran & A. Karmiloff-Smith (Eds.), Neurodevelopmental disorders across the lifespan: A neuroconstructivist approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Farran, E. K. (2011). Williams syndrome: A model for the neuroconstructivist approach. In E. K. Farran & A. Karmiloff-Smith (Eds.), Neurodevelopmental disorders across the lifespan: A neuroconstructivist approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
go back to reference Kau, A. S. M., Meyer, W. A., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2002). Early development in males with Fragile X syndrome: A review of the literature. Microscopy Research and Technique, 57(3), 174–178. CrossRefPubMed Kau, A. S. M., Meyer, W. A., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2002). Early development in males with Fragile X syndrome: A review of the literature. Microscopy Research and Technique, 57(3), 174–178. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kau, A. S. M., Reider, E. E., Payne, L., Meyer, W. A., & Freund, L. S. (2000). Early behavior signs of psychiatric phenotypes in fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 105(4), 286–299. CrossRefPubMed Kau, A. S. M., Reider, E. E., Payne, L., Meyer, W. A., & Freund, L. S. (2000). Early behavior signs of psychiatric phenotypes in fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 105(4), 286–299. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klaiman, C., Quintin, E. M., Jo, B., Lightbody, A. A., Hazlett, H. C., Piven, J., et al. (2014). Longitudinal profiles of adaptive behavior in fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics, 134(2), 315–324. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Klaiman, C., Quintin, E. M., Jo, B., Lightbody, A. A., Hazlett, H. C., Piven, J., et al. (2014). Longitudinal profiles of adaptive behavior in fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics, 134(2), 315–324. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lachiewicz, A. M., Dawson, D. V., & Spiridigliozzi, G. A. (2000). Physical characteristics of young boys with fragile X syndrome: Reasons for difficulties in making a diagnosis in young males. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 92(4), 229–236. CrossRefPubMed Lachiewicz, A. M., Dawson, D. V., & Spiridigliozzi, G. A. (2000). Physical characteristics of young boys with fragile X syndrome: Reasons for difficulties in making a diagnosis in young males. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 92(4), 229–236. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Landa, R. J., Holman, K. C., & Garrett-Mayer, E. (2007). Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 853–864. CrossRefPubMed Landa, R. J., Holman, K. C., & Garrett-Mayer, E. (2007). Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 853–864. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 544–554. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 544–554. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Merenstein, S. A., Sobesky, W. E., Taylor, A. K., Riddle, J. E., Tran, H. X., & Hagerman, R. (1996). Molecular-clinical correlations in males with an expanded FMR1 mutation. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 64(2), 388–394. CrossRefPubMed Merenstein, S. A., Sobesky, W. E., Taylor, A. K., Riddle, J. E., Tran, H. X., & Hagerman, R. (1996). Molecular-clinical correlations in males with an expanded FMR1 mutation. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 64(2), 388–394. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mian, N. D., Carter, A. S., Pine, D. S., Wakschlag, L. S., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2015). Development of a novel observational measure for anxiety in young children: The Anxiety Dimensional Observation Scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56(9), 1017–1025. CrossRefPubMed Mian, N. D., Carter, A. S., Pine, D. S., Wakschlag, L. S., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2015). Development of a novel observational measure for anxiety in young children: The Anxiety Dimensional Observation Scale. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 56(9), 1017–1025. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Miller, A. C., Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., Willcutt, E., Pennington, B. F., & Olson, R. K. (2013). Reading comprehension in children with ADHD: Cognitive underpinnings of the centrality deficit. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(3), 473–483. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Miller, A. C., Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., Willcutt, E., Pennington, B. F., & Olson, R. K. (2013). Reading comprehension in children with ADHD: Cognitive underpinnings of the centrality deficit. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(3), 473–483. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Moskowitz, L. J., & Jones, E. A. (2015). Uncovering the evidence for behavioral interventions with individuals with fragile X syndrome: A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 223–241. CrossRef Moskowitz, L. J., & Jones, E. A. (2015). Uncovering the evidence for behavioral interventions with individuals with fragile X syndrome: A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 223–241. CrossRef
go back to reference Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
go back to reference Ouyang, L., Grosse, S., Raspa, M., & Bailey, D. (2010). Employment impact and financial burden for families of children with fragile X syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(10), 918–928. CrossRefPubMed Ouyang, L., Grosse, S., Raspa, M., & Bailey, D. (2010). Employment impact and financial burden for families of children with fragile X syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(10), 918–928. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. (2010). Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: Evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 149–166. CrossRefPubMed Reichow, B., & Volkmar, F. (2010). Social skills interventions for individuals with autism: Evaluation for evidence-based practices within a best evidence synthesis framework. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(2), 149–166. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Clarke, M. A., Alcorn, K., Carter, J. C., Long, A. C., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Autistic behavior in boys with fragile X syndrome: Social approach and HPA-axis dysfunction. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 1(4), 283. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Roberts, J. E., Clarke, M. A., Alcorn, K., Carter, J. C., Long, A. C., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Autistic behavior in boys with fragile X syndrome: Social approach and HPA-axis dysfunction. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 1(4), 283. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Crawford, H., Will, E. A., Hogan, A. L., McQuillin, S., Tonnsen, B. L., et al. (2019). Infant social avoidance predicts autism but not anxiety in fragile X syndrome. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 199. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Roberts, J. E., Crawford, H., Will, E. A., Hogan, A. L., McQuillin, S., Tonnsen, B. L., et al. (2019). Infant social avoidance predicts autism but not anxiety in fragile X syndrome. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 199. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Ezell, J. E., Fairchild, A. J., Klusek, J., Thurman, A. J., McDuffie, A. et al. (2018). Biobehavioral composite of social aspects of anxiety in young adults with fragile X syndrome contrasted to autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 177(7), 665–675. CrossRef Roberts, J. E., Ezell, J. E., Fairchild, A. J., Klusek, J., Thurman, A. J., McDuffie, A. et al. (2018). Biobehavioral composite of social aspects of anxiety in young adults with fragile X syndrome contrasted to autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 177(7), 665–675. CrossRef
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Tonnsen, B., Robinson, A., & Shinkareva, S. V. (2012). Heart activity and autistic behavior in infants and toddlers with fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(2), 90–102. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Roberts, J. E., Tonnsen, B., Robinson, A., & Shinkareva, S. V. (2012). Heart activity and autistic behavior in infants and toddlers with fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(2), 90–102. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Tonnsen, B. L., McCary, L. M., Caravella, K. E., & Shinkareva, S. V. (2016). Brief report: Autism symptoms in infants with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(12), 3830–3837. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Roberts, J. E., Tonnsen, B. L., McCary, L. M., Caravella, K. E., & Shinkareva, S. V. (2016). Brief report: Autism symptoms in infants with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(12), 3830–3837. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Weisenfeld, L. A. H., Hatton, D. D., Heath, M., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2007). Social approach and autistic behavior in children with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1748–1760. CrossRefPubMed Roberts, J. E., Weisenfeld, L. A. H., Hatton, D. D., Heath, M., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2007). Social approach and autistic behavior in children with fragile X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1748–1760. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter international performance scale-revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting. Roid, G. H., & Miller, L. J. (1997). Leiter international performance scale-revised. Wood Dale, IL: Stoelting.
go back to reference Schneier, F. R., Heckelman, L. R., Garfinkel, R., Campeas, R., Fallon, B. A., Gitow, A., et al. (1994). Functional impairment in social phobia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55(8), 322–331. PubMed Schneier, F. R., Heckelman, L. R., Garfinkel, R., Campeas, R., Fallon, B. A., Gitow, A., et al. (1994). Functional impairment in social phobia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 55(8), 322–331. PubMed
go back to reference Schopler, E., Van Bourgondien, M. E., Wellman, G. J., & Love, S. R. (2010). Childhood autism rating scale, second edition (CARS-2): manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Schopler, E., Van Bourgondien, M. E., Wellman, G. J., & Love, S. R. (2010). Childhood autism rating scale, second edition (CARS-2): manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Thurman, A. J., McDuffie, A., Hagerman, R., & Abbeduto, L. (2014). Psychiatric symptoms in boys with fragile X syndrome: A comparison with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(5), 1072–1086. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Thurman, A. J., McDuffie, A., Hagerman, R., & Abbeduto, L. (2014). Psychiatric symptoms in boys with fragile X syndrome: A comparison with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(5), 1072–1086. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Torvik, F. A., Welander-Vatn, A., Ystrom, E., Knudsen, G. P., Czajkowski, N., Kendler, K. S., et al. (2016). Longitudinal associations between social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: A twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 114–124. CrossRefPubMed Torvik, F. A., Welander-Vatn, A., Ystrom, E., Knudsen, G. P., Czajkowski, N., Kendler, K. S., et al. (2016). Longitudinal associations between social anxiety disorder and avoidant personality disorder: A twin study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125(1), 114–124. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Turner, G., Webb, T., Wake, S., & Robinson, H. (1996). Prevalence of fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 64(1), 196–197. CrossRefPubMed Turner, G., Webb, T., Wake, S., & Robinson, H. (1996). Prevalence of fragile X syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 64(1), 196–197. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Warren, S. F., Brady, N., Sterling, A., Fleming, K., & Marquis, J. (2010). Maternal responsivity predicts language development in young children with fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115(1), 54–75. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Warren, S. F., Brady, N., Sterling, A., Fleming, K., & Marquis, J. (2010). Maternal responsivity predicts language development in young children with fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115(1), 54–75. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference White, S. W., Mazefsky, C. A., Dichter, G. S., Chiu, P. H., Richey, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2014). Social-cognitive, physiological, and neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation impairments: Understanding anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 39, 22–36. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral White, S. W., Mazefsky, C. A., Dichter, G. S., Chiu, P. H., Richey, J. A., & Ollendick, T. H. (2014). Social-cognitive, physiological, and neural mechanisms underlying emotion regulation impairments: Understanding anxiety in autism spectrum disorder. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 39, 22–36. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Williams, T. A., Porter, M. A., & Langdon, R. (2014). Social approach and emotion recognition in fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119(2), 133–150. CrossRefPubMed Williams, T. A., Porter, M. A., & Langdon, R. (2014). Social approach and emotion recognition in fragile X syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119(2), 133–150. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23(2-3), 143–152. CrossRefPubMed Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Rogers, T., Roberts, W., Brian, J., & Szatmari, P. (2005). Behavioral manifestations of autism in the first year of life. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23(2-3), 143–152. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Social Avoidance Emerges in Infancy and Persists into Adulthood in Fragile X Syndrome
Auteurs
Jane Roberts
Hayley Crawford
Abigail L. Hogan
Amanda Fairchild
Bridgette Tonnsen
Alexis Brewe
Shannon O’Connor
Douglas A. Roberts
Leonard Abbeduto
Publicatiedatum
04-06-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 9/2019
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04051-8