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22-04-2022 | Original Paper

Sex Differences on the ADOS-2

Auteurs: Hannah M. Rea, Roald A. Øien, Frederick Shic, Sara Jane Webb, Allison B. Ratto

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

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Abstract

The sex difference in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be magnified by sex differences on diagnostic measures. The current study compared autistic males and females on items on the gold-standard diagnostic measure, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2). In a sample of 8-to-17-year old autistic individuals from research (n = 229) and clinical settings (n = 238), females were less likely to show atypicalities on most items related to social-communication behaviors and on total and subscale scores. When controlling for overall intensity of symptomatology, no sex differences survived statistical corrections. Diagnostic criteria and/or gold-standard assessments may be less sensitive to female presentations of ASD and/or autistic females may exhibit fewer or less intense behaviors characteristic of ASD.
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Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Sex is defined as biological and physiological characteristics related to being male, female, or intersex. Gender refers to the socially constructed characteristics associated with sex (World Health Organization, 2002). As gendered social constructs begin early in development, and gender identity is rarely assessed to appropriately distinguish between the effect of sex or gender on presentation, the term sex/gender will be used in reviews of extant literature (e.g., Lai et al., 2015). Additionally, while we recognize the increased prevalence of gender diversity (e.g., transgender, nonbinary, etc.) among autistic individuals who may not conform to “traditional” gender norms (Janssen et al., 2016; Øien et al., 2018a, b; Strang et al., 2014), the present study focuses on ASD diagnostic assessments based on sex as data was not collected on gender identity.
 
2
Additionally, we are using “identity-first language” based on consultation with self-advocates, preferences by autistic people (Kenny et al., 2016), and reports that this language is less stigmatizing than person-first language (Bottema-Beutel et al., 2021).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Sex Differences on the ADOS-2
Auteurs
Hannah M. Rea
Roald A. Øien
Frederick Shic
Sara Jane Webb
Allison B. Ratto
Publicatiedatum
22-04-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-022-05566-3