Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 7/2012

01-07-2012 | Original Paper

Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a Large Sample of Children and Adolescents

Auteurs: William Mandy, Rebecca Chilvers, Uttom Chowdhury, Gemma Salter, Anna Seigal, David Skuse

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 7/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Sex differences have been found amongst toddlers and young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated the presence and stability of these ASD sex differences throughout childhood and adolescence. Participants (N = 325, 52 females; aged 3–18 years) consecutively received an ASD diagnosis at a clinic for assessing high-functioning ASD (mean verbal IQ = 92.6). There were no IQ sex differences. By parent report and direct observation, females had less repetitive stereotyped behaviour (RSB), with male-equivalent levels of social and communication impairment. Teachers reported males with ASD as having greater externalising and social problems than females. The female phenotype we describe was stable across our sample’s age range. Their milder RSBs and less severe difficulties at school may lead to under-recognition of ASD in females.
Voetnoten
1
The nuanced mean (n′) was calculated with the following formula: \( {\text{n}}\prime = [2({\text{n}}_{1} {\text{n}}_{2} )]/[{\text{n}}_{1} + {\text{n}}_{2} ] \).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Aguinis, H. (1995). Statistical power problems with moderated multiple regression in management research. Journal of Management, 21, 1141–1158. Aguinis, H. (1995). Statistical power problems with moderated multiple regression in management research. Journal of Management, 21, 1141–1158.
go back to reference Aguinis, H., Boik, R., & Pierce, C. (2001). A generalised solution for approximating power to detect effects of categorical moderator effects using multiple regression. Organisational Research Methods, 4, 291–323. CrossRef Aguinis, H., Boik, R., & Pierce, C. (2001). A generalised solution for approximating power to detect effects of categorical moderator effects using multiple regression. Organisational Research Methods, 4, 291–323. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP). Lancet, 368, 210–215. PubMedCrossRef Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The special needs and autism project (SNAP). Lancet, 368, 210–215. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 248–254. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 248–254. CrossRef
go back to reference Bishop, D. V. (1998). Development of the children’s communication checklist (CCC): A method for assessing qualitative aspects of communication impairment in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 879–891. PubMedCrossRef Bishop, D. V. (1998). Development of the children’s communication checklist (CCC): A method for assessing qualitative aspects of communication impairment in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 879–891. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carter, A. S., Black, D. O., Tewani, S., Connolly, C. E., Kadlec, M. B., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007). Sex differences in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 86–97. PubMedCrossRef Carter, A. S., Black, D. O., Tewani, S., Connolly, C. E., Kadlec, M. B., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007). Sex differences in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 86–97. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, J., & Todd, R. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 524–530. PubMedCrossRef Constantino, J., & Todd, R. (2003). Autistic traits in the general population: A twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 524–530. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., Whetton, C., & Pintillie, D. (1982). British picture vocabulary scale. Windsor: FER-Nelson. Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., Whetton, C., & Pintillie, D. (1982). British picture vocabulary scale. Windsor: FER-Nelson.
go back to reference Giarelli, E., Wiggins, L. D., Rice, C. E., Levy, S. E., Kirby, R. S., Pinto-Martin, J., et al. (2010). Sex differences in the evaluation and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders among children. Disability and Health Journal, 3, 107–116. PubMedCrossRef Giarelli, E., Wiggins, L. D., Rice, C. E., Levy, S. E., Kirby, R. S., Pinto-Martin, J., et al. (2010). Sex differences in the evaluation and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders among children. Disability and Health Journal, 3, 107–116. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581–586. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581–586. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337–1345. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337–1345. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Goodman, A., & Goodman, R. (2009). Strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a dimensional measure of child mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 400–403. PubMedCrossRef Goodman, A., & Goodman, R. (2009). Strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a dimensional measure of child mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 400–403. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Halpern, D. F. (1997). Sex differences in intelligence. Implications for education. American Psychologist, 52, 1091–1102. PubMedCrossRef Halpern, D. F. (1997). Sex differences in intelligence. Implications for education. American Psychologist, 52, 1091–1102. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hartley, S. L., & Sikora, D. M. (2009). Sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: An examination of developmental functioning, autistic symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems in toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1715–1722. CrossRef Hartley, S. L., & Sikora, D. M. (2009). Sex differences in autism spectrum disorder: An examination of developmental functioning, autistic symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems in toddlers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1715–1722. CrossRef
go back to reference Hartung, C. M., & Widiger, T. A. (1998). Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders: conclusions and controversies of the DSM-IV. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 260–278. PubMedCrossRef Hartung, C. M., & Widiger, T. A. (1998). Gender differences in the diagnosis of mental disorders: conclusions and controversies of the DSM-IV. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 260–278. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49, 361–366. PubMedCrossRef Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behaviour domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49, 361–366. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef
go back to reference Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (2011). The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ)-Revised Extended Version (ASSQ-REV): An instrument for better capturing the autism phenotype in girls? A preliminary study involving 191 clinical cases and community controls. Research in Developmental Disabilities (Epub ahead of publication). Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (2011). The Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ)-Revised Extended Version (ASSQ-REV): An instrument for better capturing the autism phenotype in girls? A preliminary study involving 191 clinical cases and community controls. Research in Developmental Disabilities (Epub ahead of publication).
go back to reference Lai, M., Lombardo, M., Pasco, G., et al. (2011). A behavioural comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions. PLoS One, 6(6). Lai, M., Lombardo, M., Pasco, G., et al. (2011). A behavioural comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions. PLoS One, 6(6).
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le, C. A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le, C. A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330. PubMedCrossRef Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mandy, W., Charman, T., Gilmour, J., & Skuse, D. (2011). Toward specifying pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Autism Research, 4, 121–131. PubMedCrossRef Mandy, W., Charman, T., Gilmour, J., & Skuse, D. (2011). Toward specifying pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Autism Research, 4, 121–131. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 217–227. PubMedCrossRef McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 217–227. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Miller, J. N., & Ozonoff, S. (1997). Did Asperger’s cases have Asperger disorder? A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 247–251. PubMedCrossRef Miller, J. N., & Ozonoff, S. (1997). Did Asperger’s cases have Asperger disorder? A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 247–251. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Office for National Statistics. (2005). Census 2001: General report for England and Wales. London: Palgrave McMillan. Office for National Statistics. (2005). Census 2001: General report for England and Wales. London: Palgrave McMillan.
go back to reference Perneger, T. (1998). What’s wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. British Medical Journal, 316, 1236. PubMedCrossRef Perneger, T. (1998). What’s wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. British Medical Journal, 316, 1236. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Shulman, C., & Dover, R. (1998). The autism diagnostic interview-revised and the childhood autism rating scale: Differences between diagnostic systems and comparison between genders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 143–151. PubMedCrossRef Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Shulman, C., & Dover, R. (1998). The autism diagnostic interview-revised and the childhood autism rating scale: Differences between diagnostic systems and comparison between genders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 143–151. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Posserud, M., Lundervold, A., & Gillberg, C. (2006). Autistic features in a total population of 7- to 9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 167–175. PubMedCrossRef Posserud, M., Lundervold, A., & Gillberg, C. (2006). Autistic features in a total population of 7- to 9-year-old children assessed by the ASSQ (Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 167–175. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 139–161. PubMedCrossRef Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 139–161. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schniering, C. A., Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2000). Issues in the diagnosis and assessment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 453–478. PubMedCrossRef Schniering, C. A., Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2000). Issues in the diagnosis and assessment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 453–478. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929. PubMedCrossRef Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Skuse, D. H., Mandy, W., Steer, C., Miller, L. L., Goodman, R., Lawrence, K., et al. (2009). Social communication competence and functional adaptation in a general population of children: Preliminary evidence for sex-by-verbal IQ differential risk. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 128–137. PubMedCrossRef Skuse, D. H., Mandy, W., Steer, C., Miller, L. L., Goodman, R., Lawrence, K., et al. (2009). Social communication competence and functional adaptation in a general population of children: Preliminary evidence for sex-by-verbal IQ differential risk. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 128–137. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Skuse, D., Warrington, R., Bishop, D., Chowdhury, U., Lau, J., Mandy, W., et al. (2004). The developmental, dimensional and diagnostic interview (3Di): A novel computerized assessment for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 548–558. PubMedCrossRef Skuse, D., Warrington, R., Bishop, D., Chowdhury, U., Lau, J., Mandy, W., et al. (2004). The developmental, dimensional and diagnostic interview (3Di): A novel computerized assessment for autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 548–558. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Szatmari, P. (2000). The classification of autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 731–738. Szatmari, P. (2000). The classification of autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 731–738.
go back to reference Volkmar, F.R., Paul, R., Klin, A., & Cohen, D. (2005). Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental dsisorders (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NY: Wiley. Volkmar, F.R., Paul, R., Klin, A., & Cohen, D. (2005). Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental dsisorders (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NY: Wiley.
go back to reference Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 579–591. PubMedCrossRef Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 579–591. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1999). Manual for the Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (1999). Manual for the Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (2003). Manual for the Wechsler intelligence scale for children—fourth UK edition (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D. (2003). Manual for the Wechsler intelligence scale for children—fourth UK edition (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference Wechsler, D., Golombok, J., & Rust, S. (1991). Manual for the Wechsler intelligence scale for children—third UK edition (3rd ed.). Sidcup: Psychological Corporation. Wechsler, D., Golombok, J., & Rust, S. (1991). Manual for the Wechsler intelligence scale for children—third UK edition (3rd ed.). Sidcup: Psychological Corporation.
go back to reference World Health Organisation. (1993). The international classification of diseases and disorders-10 (ICD-10) classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organisation. World Health Organisation. (1993). The international classification of diseases and disorders-10 (ICD-10) classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
go back to reference Zahn-Waxler, C., & Shirtcliff, E. (2006). Childhood disorders: Gender and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 275–303. CrossRef Zahn-Waxler, C., & Shirtcliff, E. (2006). Childhood disorders: Gender and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 275–303. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a Large Sample of Children and Adolescents
Auteurs
William Mandy
Rebecca Chilvers
Uttom Chowdhury
Gemma Salter
Anna Seigal
David Skuse
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 7/2012
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1356-0