Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2009

01-12-2009 | original paper

Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers

Auteurs: Sigan L. Hartley, Darryn M. Sikora

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 12/2009

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5–3.9 years. Overall, boys and girls evidenced a markedly similar pattern of developmental profiles, autism symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems, although subtle differences exist. Boys and girls evidenced a similar pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. Girls with ASD evidenced greater communication deficits than boys and boys evidenced more restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior than girls. Girls exhibited more sleep problems and anxious or depressed affect than boys.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2000). Child behavior checklist. Burlington VT: ASEBA. Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2000). Child behavior checklist. Burlington VT: ASEBA.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (fourth edition, text revision). Washington, DC: Author. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (fourth edition, text revision). Washington, DC: Author. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., & Hammer, J. (1997). Is autism an extreme form of the ‘male brain’? Advances in Infancy Research, 11, 193–217. Baron-Cohen, S., & Hammer, J. (1997). Is autism an extreme form of the ‘male brain’? Advances in Infancy Research, 11, 193–217.
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R., Kickmeyer, R., & Wheelwright, S. (2006). The autism quotient (AQ)—Adolescent version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 343–350. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R., Kickmeyer, R., & Wheelwright, S. (2006). The autism quotient (AQ)—Adolescent version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 343–350. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, M., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, M., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. (1976). Differences between mentally retarded and normally intelligent autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 109–120. CrossRefPubMed Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. (1976). Differences between mentally retarded and normally intelligent autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 109–120. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Carter, A. S., Black, D. O., Tewani, S., Connolly, C. E., Kadlec, M. B., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007). Sex differences in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 86–97. CrossRefPubMed Carter, A. S., Black, D. O., Tewani, S., Connolly, C. E., Kadlec, M. B., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2007). Sex differences in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 86–97. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder—Autism and developmental disability monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2002. In Surveillance Summary (pp. 12–27). 9, Feb, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder—Autism and developmental disability monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2002. In Surveillance Summary (pp. 12–27). 9, Feb, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56.
go back to reference Gadow, K. D., & DeVincent, C. J. (2005). Clinical significance of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 20, 481–488. PubMed Gadow, K. D., & DeVincent, C. J. (2005). Clinical significance of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 20, 481–488. PubMed
go back to reference Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-aged children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism, 9, 392–415. CrossRefPubMed Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-aged children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism, 9, 392–415. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2004). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and Clinic and Comparison samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 379–393. CrossRefPubMed Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2004). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and Clinic and Comparison samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 379–393. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hastings, R. P., Kovshoff, H., Ward, N. J., Espinosa, F., Brown, T., & Remington, B. (2005). Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 635–644. CrossRefPubMed Hastings, R. P., Kovshoff, H., Ward, N. J., Espinosa, F., Brown, T., & Remington, B. (2005). Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 635–644. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Herring, S., Gray, L., Taffe, J., Tonge, G., Sweeney, D., & Einfield, S. (2006). Behaviour and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: Association with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 874–888. CrossRefPubMed Herring, S., Gray, L., Taffe, J., Tonge, G., Sweeney, D., & Einfield, S. (2006). Behaviour and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: Association with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 874–888. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behavior in autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49, 361–366. CrossRefPubMed Holtmann, M., Bolte, S., & Poustka, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders: Sex differences in autistic behavior in autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49, 361–366. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hus, V., Pickles, A., Cook, E. H., Risi, S., & Lord, C. (2007). Using the autism diagnostic interview-revised to increase phenotypic homogeneity in genetic studies of autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 438–444. CrossRefPubMed Hus, V., Pickles, A., Cook, E. H., Risi, S., & Lord, C. (2007). Using the autism diagnostic interview-revised to increase phenotypic homogeneity in genetic studies of autism. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 438–444. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ingudomnukul, E., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Kickmeyer, R. (2007). Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions. Hormones and Behavior, 51, 597–604. CrossRefPubMed Ingudomnukul, E., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Kickmeyer, R. (2007). Elevated rates of testosterone-related disorders in women with autism spectrum conditions. Hormones and Behavior, 51, 597–604. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Joseph, R. M., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2002). Cognitive profiles and social-communicative functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 807–821. CrossRef Joseph, R. M., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2002). Cognitive profiles and social-communicative functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 807–821. CrossRef
go back to reference Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical Asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical Asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef
go back to reference Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., & Rios, P. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview: A standardized investigator-based instrument. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 363–387. CrossRefPubMed Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., & Rios, P. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview: A standardized investigator-based instrument. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 363–387. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lecavalier, L., Leone, S., & Wiltz, J. (2006). The impact of behaviour problems on caregiver stress in young people with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 172–183. CrossRefPubMed Lecavalier, L., Leone, S., & Wiltz, J. (2006). The impact of behaviour problems on caregiver stress in young people with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 172–183. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lincoln, A. J., Allen, M. H., & Kilman, K. (1995). The assessment and interpretation of intellectual abilities in people with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 89–117). New York, NY: Plenum Press. Lincoln, A. J., Allen, M. H., & Kilman, K. (1995). The assessment and interpretation of intellectual abilities in people with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 89–117). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
go back to reference Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mandell, D. S., Walrath, C. M., Manteuffel, B., Sgro, G., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2005). The prevalence and correlates of abuse among children with autism served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 1359–1372. CrossRefPubMed Mandell, D. S., Walrath, C. M., Manteuffel, B., Sgro, G., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2005). The prevalence and correlates of abuse among children with autism served in comprehensive community-based mental health settings. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 1359–1372. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 23, 217–227. CrossRef McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 23, 217–227. CrossRef
go back to reference Mullen, E. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Systems. Mullen, E. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Systems.
go back to reference Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Sulman, C., & Dover, R. (1998). The autism diagnostic interview-revised and the childhood autism rating scale: Differences between diagnostic systems and comparison between gender. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 143–151. CrossRefPubMed Pilowsky, T., Yirmiya, N., Sulman, C., & Dover, R. (1998). The autism diagnostic interview-revised and the childhood autism rating scale: Differences between diagnostic systems and comparison between gender. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 143–151. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). ADI-R: The autism diagnostic interview—Revised. Los Angelos, CA: Western Psychological Services. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). ADI-R: The autism diagnostic interview—Revised. Los Angelos, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Schultz, R. T., Romanski, L. M., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (2000). Neurofunctional models of autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome: Clues from neuroimaging. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 172–209). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Schultz, R. T., Romanski, L. M., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (2000). Neurofunctional models of autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome: Clues from neuroimaging. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 172–209). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Skuse, D. H. (2000). Imprinting, the X-chromosome, and the male brain: Explaining sex differences in the liability to autism. Pediatric Research, 47, 9–16. CrossRefPubMed Skuse, D. H. (2000). Imprinting, the X-chromosome, and the male brain: Explaining sex differences in the liability to autism. Pediatric Research, 47, 9–16. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing. Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing.
go back to reference Szatmarr, P., Jones, M. B., Holden, J., Bryson, S., Mahoney, W., Tuff, L., et al. (1996). High phenotypic correlations among siblings with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 67, 354–360. CrossRef Szatmarr, P., Jones, M. B., Holden, J., Bryson, S., Mahoney, W., Tuff, L., et al. (1996). High phenotypic correlations among siblings with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 67, 354–360. CrossRef
go back to reference Tsai, L. Y., & Beisler, J. M. (1983). The developmental of sex differences in infantile autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 373–378. CrossRefPubMed Tsai, L. Y., & Beisler, J. M. (1983). The developmental of sex differences in infantile autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 373–378. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tsi, L., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implications of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 165–173. CrossRef Tsi, L., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implications of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 165–173. CrossRef
go back to reference Voigt, R. G., Llorente, A. M., Jensen, C. L., Fraley, J. K., Barbaresi, W. J., & Heird, W. C. (2007). Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report. Clinical Pediatrics, 46(6), 523–529. CrossRefPubMed Voigt, R. G., Llorente, A. M., Jensen, C. L., Fraley, J. K., Barbaresi, W. J., & Heird, W. C. (2007). Comparison of the validity of direct pediatric developmental evaluation versus developmental screening by parent report. Clinical Pediatrics, 46(6), 523–529. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Volkmar, F. R., Bregman, J., Cohen, D. J., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1988). DSM III and DSM III-R diagnoses of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1404–1408. PubMed Volkmar, F. R., Bregman, J., Cohen, D. J., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1988). DSM III and DSM III-R diagnoses of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1404–1408. PubMed
go back to reference Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 579–591. CrossRefPubMed Volkmar, F. R., Szatmari, P., & Sparrow, S. S. (1993). Sex differences in pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 579–591. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wakabayashi, A., Tojo, Y., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The autism quotient (AQ) Japanese version: Evidence from high functioning clinical group and normal adults. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 75, 78–84. Wakabayashi, A., Tojo, Y., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The autism quotient (AQ) Japanese version: Evidence from high functioning clinical group and normal adults. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 75, 78–84.
go back to reference Wakabayashi, A., Uchiyama, T., Tojo, Y., Yoshida, Y., Kuroda, M., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2007). The autism spectrum quotient (AQ) Japanese children version: Comparison between high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder and normal controls. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 77, 534–540. Wakabayashi, A., Uchiyama, T., Tojo, Y., Yoshida, Y., Kuroda, M., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2007). The autism spectrum quotient (AQ) Japanese children version: Comparison between high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder and normal controls. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 77, 534–540.
go back to reference Wing, L. (1981). Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions. Psychiatric Research, 5, 129–137. CrossRef Wing, L. (1981). Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions. Psychiatric Research, 5, 129–137. CrossRef
go back to reference Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29. CrossRefPubMed Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Winsler, A., & Wallace, G. (2002). Behavior problems and social skills in preschool children: Parent-teacher agreement and relations with classroom observations. Early Education & Development, 13(1), 41–58. CrossRef Winsler, A., & Wallace, G. (2002). Behavior problems and social skills in preschool children: Parent-teacher agreement and relations with classroom observations. Early Education & Development, 13(1), 41–58. CrossRef
go back to reference Wolff, S., & McGuire, R. J. (1995). Schiziod personality in girls: A follow-up study—What are the links with Asperger’s syndrome? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 793–817. CrossRef Wolff, S., & McGuire, R. J. (1995). Schiziod personality in girls: A follow-up study—What are the links with Asperger’s syndrome? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 793–817. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers
Auteurs
Sigan L. Hartley
Darryn M. Sikora
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2009
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 12/2009
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-009-0810-8