Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Little is known about the female presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during early childhood. We investigated sex differences in developmental profiles using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, autistic symptoms on the ADOS-G, and coexisting behavior problems on the CBCL in 157 boys and 42 girls with ASD aged 1.5–3.9 years. Overall, boys and girls evidenced a markedly similar pattern of developmental profiles, autism symptoms, and coexisting behavior problems, although subtle differences exist. Boys and girls evidenced a similar pattern of developmental strengths and weaknesses. Girls with ASD evidenced greater communication deficits than boys and boys evidenced more restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior than girls. Girls exhibited more sleep problems and anxious or depressed affect than boys.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Achenbach, T., & Rescorla, L. (2000). Child behavior checklist. Burlington VT: ASEBA.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (fourth edition, text revision). Washington, DC: Author. CrossRef
Baron-Cohen, S., & Hammer, J. (1997). Is autism an extreme form of the ‘male brain’? Advances in Infancy Research, 11, 193–217.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder—Autism and developmental disability monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2002. In Surveillance Summary (pp. 12–27). 9, Feb, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56.
Gadow, K. D., & DeVincent, C. J. (2005). Clinical significance of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 20, 481–488. PubMed
Herring, S., Gray, L., Taffe, J., Tonge, G., Sweeney, D., & Einfield, S. (2006). Behaviour and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: Association with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 874–888. CrossRefPubMed
Joseph, R. M., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lord, C. (2002). Cognitive profiles and social-communicative functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 43, 807–821. CrossRef
Kopp, S., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Girls with social deficits and learning problems: Autism, atypical Asperger syndrome or a variant of these conditions. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1, 89–99. CrossRef
Lincoln, A. J., Allen, M. H., & Kilman, K. (1995). The assessment and interpretation of intellectual abilities in people with autism. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.), Learning and cognition in autism (pp. 89–117). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 205–223. CrossRefPubMed
McLennan, J. D., Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1993). Sex differences in higher functioning people with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 23, 217–227. CrossRef
Mullen, E. (1995). Mullen Scales of Early Learning (AGS ed.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Systems.
Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). ADI-R: The autism diagnostic interview—Revised. Los Angelos, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1988). The childhood autism rating scale. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Schultz, R. T., Romanski, L. M., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (2000). Neurofunctional models of autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome: Clues from neuroimaging. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome (pp. 172–209). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Sparrow, S. S., Cicchetti, D. V., & Balla, D. A. (2005). Vineland adaptive behavior scales (2nd ed.). Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing.
Szatmarr, P., Jones, M. B., Holden, J., Bryson, S., Mahoney, W., Tuff, L., et al. (1996). High phenotypic correlations among siblings with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 67, 354–360. CrossRef
Tsi, L., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implications of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 165–173. CrossRef
Volkmar, F. R., Bregman, J., Cohen, D. J., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1988). DSM III and DSM III-R diagnoses of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1404–1408. PubMed
Wakabayashi, A., Tojo, Y., Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The autism quotient (AQ) Japanese version: Evidence from high functioning clinical group and normal adults. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 75, 78–84.
Wakabayashi, A., Uchiyama, T., Tojo, Y., Yoshida, Y., Kuroda, M., Baron-Cohen, S., et al. (2007). The autism spectrum quotient (AQ) Japanese children version: Comparison between high functioning children with autism spectrum disorder and normal controls. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 77, 534–540.
Wing, L. (1981). Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions. Psychiatric Research, 5, 129–137. CrossRef
Winsler, A., & Wallace, G. (2002). Behavior problems and social skills in preschool children: Parent-teacher agreement and relations with classroom observations. Early Education & Development, 13(1), 41–58. CrossRef
Wolff, S., & McGuire, R. J. (1995). Schiziod personality in girls: A follow-up study—What are the links with Asperger’s syndrome? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 793–817. CrossRef
- Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Developmental Functioning, Autistic Symptoms, and Coexisting Behavior Problems in Toddlers
Sigan L. Hartley
Darryn M. Sikora
- Springer US