Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 4/2020

30-11-2019 | Original Paper

Severity and Frequency of Antisocial Behaviors: Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood Antisocial Behavior Index

Auteurs: Cristiane S. Duarte, Jaimie Klotz, Katherine Elkington, Patrick E. Shrout, Glorisa Canino, Ruth Eisenberg, Ana Ortin, Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo, Thomas Corbeil, Hector Bird

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 4/2020

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

An Antisocial Behavior index (ASB-I) for children (ages 5 to 15) was previously developed by obtaining clinician ratings of the seriousness or severity of various behaviors with the goal of improving assessment of antisocial behaviors (ASB) longitudinally. We extend the instrument for use in late adolescence/young adulthood, as socially unacceptable conduct manifests differently across developmental stages. As in the original study, this extension (the ASB-I YA) is based on independent ratings of ASB seriousness/severity during late adolescence/young adulthood (16 to 28 years) made by nine experienced clinicians.

Methods

The items rated were drawn from the Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder schedules of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) and the Elliott Delinquency scales, plus new or modified items developmentally appropriate for late adolescence/young adulthood. Specific ratings were based on the developmental stage and reported frequency of the behaviors. The study also describes the distribution of ASB-I YA scores in the Boricua Youth Study.

Results

Reliability was substantial for the average ratings of each subscale and for the total score [ICC(3,9): 0.88 to 0.95]. Certain items were rated as more severe when occurring in late adolescence/young adulthood compared to childhood/early adolescence (e.g., hitting someone on purpose); however, most ratings were similar across developmental periods. Most importantly, raters reliably and consistently rated the items describing ASB in young adulthood, allowing the computation of the ASB-I YA score 8.

Conclusions

Together with the ASB-I, the ASB-I YA can further advance the study of ASB progression from childhood into young adulthood.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
go back to reference Alegria, M., Shrout, P. E., Canino, G., Alvarez, K., Wang, Y. & Bird, H. et al. (2019). The effect of minority status and social context on the development of depression and anxiety in Puerto Rican youth. World Psychiatry, 18(3), 298–307. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Alegria, M., Shrout, P. E., Canino, G., Alvarez, K., Wang, Y. & Bird, H. et al. (2019). The effect of minority status and social context on the development of depression and anxiety in Puerto Rican youth. World Psychiatry, 18(3), 298–307. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Bird, H. R., Canino, G. J., Davies, M., Duarte, C. S., Febo, V. & Ramirez, R. et al. (2006). A study of disruptive behavior disorders in Puerto Rican youth: I. background, design, and survey methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(9), 1032–1041. CrossRef Bird, H. R., Canino, G. J., Davies, M., Duarte, C. S., Febo, V. & Ramirez, R. et al. (2006). A study of disruptive behavior disorders in Puerto Rican youth: I. background, design, and survey methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(9), 1032–1041. CrossRef
go back to reference Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Canino, G., Loeber, R., Rubio-Stipec, M. & Shen, S. (2005). Classification of antisocial behaviors along severity and frequency parameters. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(3), 325–341. CrossRef Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Canino, G., Loeber, R., Rubio-Stipec, M. & Shen, S. (2005). Classification of antisocial behaviors along severity and frequency parameters. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(3), 325–341. CrossRef
go back to reference Bravo, M., Ribera, J., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Shrout, P. & Ramírez, R. et al. (2001). Test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of the diagnostic interview schedule for children (DISC-IV). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(5), 433–444. PubMedCrossRef Bravo, M., Ribera, J., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Shrout, P. & Ramírez, R. et al. (2001). Test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of the diagnostic interview schedule for children (DISC-IV). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(5), 433–444. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., Lahey, B. B. & Rathouz, P. J. (2005). Developmental transitions among affective and behavioral disorders in adolescent boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1200–1210. PubMedCrossRef Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., Lahey, B. B. & Rathouz, P. J. (2005). Developmental transitions among affective and behavioral disorders in adolescent boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1200–1210. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, P., Brown, J. & Smailes, E. (2001). Child abuse and neglect and the development of mental disorders in the general population. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4), 981–999. PubMedCrossRef Cohen, P., Brown, J. & Smailes, E. (2001). Child abuse and neglect and the development of mental disorders in the general population. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4), 981–999. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Duarte, C. S., Canino, G., Alegria, M., Ramos-Olazagasti, M., Vila, D., Miranda, P. et al. (n.d.). Developmental psychopathology & ethnicity: The young adulthood assessment of the Boricua Youth Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Duarte, C. S., Canino, G., Alegria, M., Ramos-Olazagasti, M., Vila, D., Miranda, P. et al. (n.d.). Developmental psychopathology & ethnicity: The young adulthood assessment of the Boricua Youth Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
go back to reference Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute.
go back to reference Fairchild, G., Passamonti, L., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., von dem Hagen, E. A. & van Goozen, S. H. et al. (2011). Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(6), 624–633. PubMedCrossRef Fairchild, G., Passamonti, L., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., von dem Hagen, E. A. & van Goozen, S. H. et al. (2011). Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(6), 624–633. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hudziak, J. J., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R. & Pine, D. S. (2007). A dimensional approach to developmental psychopathology. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16(S1), S16–S23. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hudziak, J. J., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R. & Pine, D. S. (2007). A dimensional approach to developmental psychopathology. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16(S1), S16–S23. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hyatt, C. J., Haney-Caron, E. & Stevens, M. C. (2012). Cortical thickness and folding deficits in conduct-disordered adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 72(3), 207–214. PubMedCrossRef Hyatt, C. J., Haney-Caron, E. & Stevens, M. C. (2012). Cortical thickness and folding deficits in conduct-disordered adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 72(3), 207–214. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jacobson, K. C., Prescott, C. A. & Kendler, K. S. (2002). Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 395–416. PubMedCrossRef Jacobson, K. C., Prescott, C. A. & Kendler, K. S. (2002). Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 395–416. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jung, H., Herrenkohl, T. I., Lee, J. O., Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A. & Skinner, M. L. (2017). Gendered pathways from child abuse to adult crime through internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(18), 2724–2750. PubMedCrossRef Jung, H., Herrenkohl, T. I., Lee, J. O., Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A. & Skinner, M. L. (2017). Gendered pathways from child abuse to adult crime through internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(18), 2724–2750. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W. & Toyinbo, P. et al. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(S1), S5–S28. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W. & Toyinbo, P. et al. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(S1), S5–S28. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Klump, K. L. & Burt, S. A. (2006). The Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): genetic, environmental and neurobiological influences on behavior across development. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(6), 971–977. PubMedCrossRef Klump, K. L. & Burt, S. A. (2006). The Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): genetic, environmental and neurobiological influences on behavior across development. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(6), 971–977. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lahey, B. B., Zald, D. H., Hakes, J. K., Krueger, R. F. & Rathouz, P. J. (2014). Patterns of heterotypic continuity associated with the cross-sectional correlational structure of prevalent mental disorders in adults. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(9), 989–996. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lahey, B. B., Zald, D. H., Hakes, J. K., Krueger, R. F. & Rathouz, P. J. (2014). Patterns of heterotypic continuity associated with the cross-sectional correlational structure of prevalent mental disorders in adults. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(9), 989–996. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A. & Bates, J. E. (2005). Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes? Development and Psychopathology, 17(1), 127–144. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A. & Bates, J. E. (2005). Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes? Development and Psychopathology, 17(1), 127–144. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Lee, J. O., Herrenkohl, T. I., Jung, H., Skinner, M. L. & Klika, J. B. (2015). Longitudinal examination of peer and partner influences on gender-specific pathways from child abuse to adult crime. Child Abuse & Neglect, 47, 83–93. CrossRef Lee, J. O., Herrenkohl, T. I., Jung, H., Skinner, M. L. & Klika, J. B. (2015). Longitudinal examination of peer and partner influences on gender-specific pathways from child abuse to adult crime. Child Abuse & Neglect, 47, 83–93. CrossRef
go back to reference Lewin, L. M., Davis, B. & Hops, H. (1999). Childhood social predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior: gender differences in predictive accuracy and efficacy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(4), 277–292. PubMedCrossRef Lewin, L. M., Davis, B. & Hops, H. (1999). Childhood social predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior: gender differences in predictive accuracy and efficacy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(4), 277–292. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(1), 1–41. CrossRef Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(1), 1–41. CrossRef
go back to reference Loeber, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: more enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(3), 393–397. CrossRef Loeber, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: more enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(3), 393–397. CrossRef
go back to reference Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B. & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: prevalence and reliability. In M. W. Klein (ed), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 203–225). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. CrossRef Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B. & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: prevalence and reliability. In M. W. Klein (ed), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 203–225). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Luk, J. W., Worley, M. J., Winiger, E., Trim, R. S., Hopfer, C. J. & Hewitt, J. K. et al. (2016). Risky driving and sexual behaviors as developmental outcomes of co-occurring substance use and antisocial behavior. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 169, 19–25. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Luk, J. W., Worley, M. J., Winiger, E., Trim, R. S., Hopfer, C. J. & Hewitt, J. K. et al. (2016). Risky driving and sexual behaviors as developmental outcomes of co-occurring substance use and antisocial behavior. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 169, 19–25. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674. PubMedCrossRef Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E. & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13(2), 355–375. PubMedCrossRef Moffitt, T. E. & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13(2), 355–375. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H. & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14(1), 179–207. PubMedCrossRef Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H. & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14(1), 179–207. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nomura, Y., Rajendran, K., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Roles of perinatal problems on adolescent antisocial behaviors among children born after 33 completed weeks: a prospective investigation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(10), 1108–1117. PubMedCrossRef Nomura, Y., Rajendran, K., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Roles of perinatal problems on adolescent antisocial behaviors among children born after 33 completed weeks: a prospective investigation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(10), 1108–1117. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. & Harrington, H. et al. (2007). Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(4), 476–484. PubMedCrossRef Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. & Harrington, H. et al. (2007). Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(4), 476–484. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Okuda, M., Martins, S. S., Wall, M., Chen, C., Santaella-Tenorio, J. & Ramos-Olazagasti, M. et al. (2018). Do parenting behaviors modify the way sensation seeking influences antisocial behaviors? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(2), 169–177. PubMedCrossRef Okuda, M., Martins, S. S., Wall, M., Chen, C., Santaella-Tenorio, J. & Ramos-Olazagasti, M. et al. (2018). Do parenting behaviors modify the way sensation seeking influences antisocial behaviors? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(2), 169–177. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Passamonti, L., Fairchild, G., Goodyer, I. M., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., Rowe, J. B. & Calder, A. J. (2010). Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 729–738. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Passamonti, L., Fairchild, G., Goodyer, I. M., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., Rowe, J. B. & Calder, A. J. (2010). Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 729–738. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J. & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3–4), 276–295. PubMedCrossRef Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J. & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3–4), 276–295. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K. & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 28–38. CrossRef Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K. & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 28–38. CrossRef
go back to reference Shevlin, M., McElroy, E. & Murphy, J. (2017). Homotypic and heterotypic psychopathological continuity: a child cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(9), 1135–1145. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Shevlin, M., McElroy, E. & Murphy, J. (2017). Homotypic and heterotypic psychopathological continuity: a child cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(9), 1135–1145. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Shiner, R. L. (2000). Linking childhood personality with adaptation: evidence for continuity and change across time into late adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 310. PubMedCrossRef Shiner, R. L. (2000). Linking childhood personality with adaptation: evidence for continuity and change across time into late adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 310. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shrout, P. E. (1998). Measurement reliability and agreement in psychiatry. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 7(3), 301–317. PubMedCrossRef Shrout, P. E. (1998). Measurement reliability and agreement in psychiatry. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 7(3), 301–317. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shrout, P. E. & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420. PubMedCrossRef Shrout, P. E. & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Shrout, P. E. & Lane, S. P. (2012). Reliability. In H. Cooper (ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 1: Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics (pp. 643–660). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Shrout, P. E. & Lane, S. P. (2012). Reliability. In H. Cooper (ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 1: Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics (pp. 643–660). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Tubman, J. G., Windle, M. & Windle, R. C. (1996). The onset and cross-temporal patterning of sexual intercourse in middle adolescence: prospective relations with behavioral and emotional problems. Child Development, 67(2), 327–343. PubMedCrossRef Tubman, J. G., Windle, M. & Windle, R. C. (1996). The onset and cross-temporal patterning of sexual intercourse in middle adolescence: prospective relations with behavioral and emotional problems. Child Development, 67(2), 327–343. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wang, P., Niv, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A. & Baker, L. A. (2013). The genetic and environmental overlap between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior in children and adolescents using the self-report delinquency interview (SR-DI). Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(5), 277–284. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wang, P., Niv, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A. & Baker, L. A. (2013). The genetic and environmental overlap between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior in children and adolescents using the self-report delinquency interview (SR-DI). Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(5), 277–284. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wei, C., Eisenberg, R. E., Ramos-Olazagasti, M. A., Wall, M., Chen, C. & Bird, H. R. et al. (2017). Developmental psychopathology in a racial/ethnic minority group: are cultural risks relevant? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(12), 1081–1088. CrossRef Wei, C., Eisenberg, R. E., Ramos-Olazagasti, M. A., Wall, M., Chen, C. & Bird, H. R. et al. (2017). Developmental psychopathology in a racial/ethnic minority group: are cultural risks relevant? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(12), 1081–1088. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Severity and Frequency of Antisocial Behaviors: Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood Antisocial Behavior Index
Auteurs
Cristiane S. Duarte
Jaimie Klotz
Katherine Elkington
Patrick E. Shrout
Glorisa Canino
Ruth Eisenberg
Ana Ortin
Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo
Thomas Corbeil
Hector Bird
Publicatiedatum
30-11-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 4/2020
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01661-9