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27-01-2017

Set-Congruent Priming Stimuli Normalize the Information Processing of Psychopathic Offenders

Auteurs: Monika A. Dargis, Alexandra C. Mattern, Joseph P. Newman

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment | Uitgave 2/2017

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Abstract

Psychopathic individuals display characteristic deficits in processing emotion cues, the abstract meaning of words, and peripheral inhibitory cues, that have been linked to deficits in self-regulation and antisocial behavior. One view, supported by recent research, is that psychopathic individuals have difficulty processing set-incongruent information and that their difficulty may be ameliorated using task manipulations that establish a set-relevant focus of attention. We evaluated this characterization of the psychopathic deficit using a lexical decision (i.e., word recognition) task and priming manipulation that caused target stimuli to be set-congruent or set-incongruent. As predicted, low-anxious (i.e., primary) psychopathic participants displayed a significantly greater priming effect than low anxious non-psychopathic participants. The results highlight the potential value of priming relevant cognitive sets to overcome the costly information processing deficits associated with psychopathy. Treatment efforts emphasizing a balance of attention between primary and peripheral information may prove especially effective for reducing maladaptive behavior in psychopathic individuals.
Voetnoten
1
Because of our participants were selected from a larger pool, some participants have been included in published work from our lab. However, the specific sample from this study has not been utilized in its entirety in any other published work.
 
2
The study design included the arrow and simultaneous presentation of the two stimuli on the target display because we wanted participants to make their lexical decision after shifting attention. Thus, we did not want the prime and target to appear in the same location. However, this design feature was a holdover from a previous experiment and is not theoretically relevant in the current study. More specifically, this design feature was not experimentally manipulated (i.e., the direction of the arrow was always valid); nor was it the focus of any analysis. For this reason, when we use the expression “attention set”, we are referring to the priming manipulation rather than the display arrow.
 
3
Although a recent meta-analysis by Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) has questioned the robustness of the response modulation deficit, their analysis did not address the magnitude of the effects of manipulating attention on performance which is the core prediction of the response modulation hypothesis and the present study (see Newman and Baskin-Sommers 2016).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Set-Congruent Priming Stimuli Normalize the Information Processing of Psychopathic Offenders
Auteurs
Monika A. Dargis
Alexandra C. Mattern
Joseph P. Newman
Publicatiedatum
27-01-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment / Uitgave 2/2017
Print ISSN: 0882-2689
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3505
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-017-9587-9

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