Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

11-02-2022 | Original Article

Self-regulation and Psychopathology in Young Children

Auteurs: Jamie M. Lawler, Jerrica Pitzen, Kristin M. Aho, Ka I. Ip, Yanni Liu, Jessica L. Hruschak, Maria Muzik, Katherine L. Rosenblum, Kate D. Fitzgerald

Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The current study examined concurrent relationships between children’s self-regulation, measured behaviorally and by parent-report, and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. The aim was to distinguish which components of self-regulation (attention vs. inhibitory control, “hot” vs. “cool” regulation) best predict dimensional symptomatology and clinical disorders in young children. The participants were 120 children, ages 4–8 years old. Results showed that greater parent-reported attention was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Behaviorally-measured hot inhibitory control related to fewer internalizing symptoms, whereas parent-reported inhibitory control related to fewer externalizing symptoms. Similar patterns emerged for clinical diagnoses, with parent-rated attention most strongly predicting disorders across domains. Results support prior evidence implicating self-regulatory deficits in externalizing problems, while also demonstrating that components of self-regulation are impaired with internalizing symptoms. Further, different sub-components of self-regulation relate to different dimensions of psychopathology in children. Interventions should target these areas in children at-risk for disorders.
Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Mischel W, Shoda Y, Rodriguez ML (1989) Delay of gratification in children. Science 244(4907):933 PubMed Mischel W, Shoda Y, Rodriguez ML (1989) Delay of gratification in children. Science 244(4907):933 PubMed
2.
go back to reference Moffitt TE, Arseneault L, Belsky D, Dickson N, Hancox RJ, Harrington H et al (2011) A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(7):2693–2698 PubMedPubMedCentral Moffitt TE, Arseneault L, Belsky D, Dickson N, Hancox RJ, Harrington H et al (2011) A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(7):2693–2698 PubMedPubMedCentral
3.
go back to reference Robson DA, Allen MS, Howard SJ (2020) Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull 146(4):324–354 PubMed Robson DA, Allen MS, Howard SJ (2020) Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull 146(4):324–354 PubMed
4.
go back to reference Eisenberg N, Spinrad TL, Eggum ND (2010) Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:495–525 PubMedPubMedCentral Eisenberg N, Spinrad TL, Eggum ND (2010) Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:495–525 PubMedPubMedCentral
5.
go back to reference Insel T, Cuthbert B, Garvey M, Heinssen R, Pine DS, Quinn K et al (2010) Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry 167(7):748–751 PubMed Insel T, Cuthbert B, Garvey M, Heinssen R, Pine DS, Quinn K et al (2010) Research domain criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry 167(7):748–751 PubMed
6.
go back to reference Derryberry D, Reed M (2001) A multidisciplinary perspective on attentional control. Elsevier Science, New York, NY Derryberry D, Reed M (2001) A multidisciplinary perspective on attentional control. Elsevier Science, New York, NY
7.
go back to reference Berger A, Kofman O, Livneh U, Henik A (2007) Multidisciplinary perspectives on attention and the development of self-regulation. Prog Neurobiol 82(5):256–286 PubMed Berger A, Kofman O, Livneh U, Henik A (2007) Multidisciplinary perspectives on attention and the development of self-regulation. Prog Neurobiol 82(5):256–286 PubMed
8.
go back to reference Eisenberg N, Cumberland A, Spinrad TL, Fabes RA, Shepard SA, Reiser M et al (2001) The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Dev 72(4):1112–1134 PubMed Eisenberg N, Cumberland A, Spinrad TL, Fabes RA, Shepard SA, Reiser M et al (2001) The relations of regulation and emotionality to children’s externalizing and internalizing problem behavior. Child Dev 72(4):1112–1134 PubMed
9.
go back to reference Riggs NR, Blair CB, Greenberg MT (2004) Concurrent and 2-year longitudinal relations between executive function and the behavior of 1st and 2nd grade children. Child Neuropsychol 9(4):267–276 Riggs NR, Blair CB, Greenberg MT (2004) Concurrent and 2-year longitudinal relations between executive function and the behavior of 1st and 2nd grade children. Child Neuropsychol 9(4):267–276
10.
go back to reference Eggum ND, Eisenberg N, Spinrad TL, Valiente C, Edwards A, Kupfer AS et al (2009) Predictors of withdrawal: possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder. Dev Psychopathol 21(03):815–838 PubMedPubMedCentral Eggum ND, Eisenberg N, Spinrad TL, Valiente C, Edwards A, Kupfer AS et al (2009) Predictors of withdrawal: possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder. Dev Psychopathol 21(03):815–838 PubMedPubMedCentral
11.
go back to reference Muris P, Meesters C, Rompelberg L (2007) Attention control in middle childhood: relations to psychopathological symptoms and threat perception distortions. Behav Res Ther 45(5):997–1010 PubMed Muris P, Meesters C, Rompelberg L (2007) Attention control in middle childhood: relations to psychopathological symptoms and threat perception distortions. Behav Res Ther 45(5):997–1010 PubMed
12.
go back to reference Muris P, Meesters C, Blijlevens P (2007) Self-reported reactive and regulative temperament in early adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and “Big Three” personality factors. J Adolesc 30(6):1035–1049 PubMed Muris P, Meesters C, Blijlevens P (2007) Self-reported reactive and regulative temperament in early adolescence: relations to internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and “Big Three” personality factors. J Adolesc 30(6):1035–1049 PubMed
13.
go back to reference White LK, McDermott JM, Degnan KA, Henderson HA, Fox NA (2011) Behavioral inhibition and anxiety: the moderating roles of inhibitory control and attention shifting. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(5):735–747 PubMedPubMedCentral White LK, McDermott JM, Degnan KA, Henderson HA, Fox NA (2011) Behavioral inhibition and anxiety: the moderating roles of inhibitory control and attention shifting. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(5):735–747 PubMedPubMedCentral
14.
go back to reference Vuontela V, Carlson S, Troberg AM, Fontell T, Simola P, Saarinen S et al (2013) Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(1):105–122 PubMed Vuontela V, Carlson S, Troberg AM, Fontell T, Simola P, Saarinen S et al (2013) Working memory, attention, inhibition, and their relation to adaptive functioning and behavioral/emotional symptoms in school-aged children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 44(1):105–122 PubMed
15.
go back to reference Spinrad TL, Eisenberg N, Gaertner B, Popp T, Smith CL, Kupfer A et al (2007) Relations of maternal socialization and toddlers’ effortful control to children’s adjustment and social competence. Dev Psychol 43(5):1170 PubMedPubMedCentral Spinrad TL, Eisenberg N, Gaertner B, Popp T, Smith CL, Kupfer A et al (2007) Relations of maternal socialization and toddlers’ effortful control to children’s adjustment and social competence. Dev Psychol 43(5):1170 PubMedPubMedCentral
16.
go back to reference Berlin L, Bohlin G, Rydell AM (2003) Relations between inhibition, executive functioning, and ADHD-symptoms: a longitudinal study from age 5 to 8. Child Neuropsychol 9:55–65 Berlin L, Bohlin G, Rydell AM (2003) Relations between inhibition, executive functioning, and ADHD-symptoms: a longitudinal study from age 5 to 8. Child Neuropsychol 9:55–65
17.
go back to reference Brocki KC, Eninger L, Thorell LB, Bohlin G (2010) Interrelations between executive function and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in preschoolers: a two year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 38(2):163–171 PubMed Brocki KC, Eninger L, Thorell LB, Bohlin G (2010) Interrelations between executive function and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in preschoolers: a two year longitudinal study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 38(2):163–171 PubMed
18.
go back to reference Brocki KC, Nyberg L, Thorell LB, Bohlin G (2007) Early concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD and ODD: relations to different types of inhibitory control and working memory. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(10):1033–1041 PubMed Brocki KC, Nyberg L, Thorell LB, Bohlin G (2007) Early concurrent and longitudinal symptoms of ADHD and ODD: relations to different types of inhibitory control and working memory. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48(10):1033–1041 PubMed
19.
go back to reference Chhabildas N, Pennington BF, Willcutt EG (2001) A comparison of the neuropsychological profiles of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD. J Abnormal Child Psychol 29(6):529–540 Chhabildas N, Pennington BF, Willcutt EG (2001) A comparison of the neuropsychological profiles of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD. J Abnormal Child Psychol 29(6):529–540
20.
go back to reference Zelazo PD, Muller U (2002) Executive function in typical and atypical development. In: Goswami U (ed) Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development. Blackwell, Malden, pp 445–469 Zelazo PD, Muller U (2002) Executive function in typical and atypical development. In: Goswami U (ed) Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development. Blackwell, Malden, pp 445–469
21.
go back to reference Zelazo PD, Müller U, Frye D, Marcovitch S, Argitis G, Boseovski J (2003) The development of executive function in early childhood. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 68(3):vii–137 PubMed Zelazo PD, Müller U, Frye D, Marcovitch S, Argitis G, Boseovski J (2003) The development of executive function in early childhood. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 68(3):vii–137 PubMed
22.
go back to reference Brock LL, Rimm-Kaufman SE, Nathanson L, Grimm KJ (2009) The contributions of ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ executive function to children’s academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kindergarten. Early Child Res Q 24(3):337–349 Brock LL, Rimm-Kaufman SE, Nathanson L, Grimm KJ (2009) The contributions of ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ executive function to children’s academic achievement, learning-related behaviors, and engagement in kindergarten. Early Child Res Q 24(3):337–349
23.
go back to reference Hongwanishkul D, Happaney KR, Lee WS, Zelazo PD (2005) Assessment of hot and cool executive function in young children: age-related changes and individual differences. Dev Neuropsychol 28(2):617–644 PubMed Hongwanishkul D, Happaney KR, Lee WS, Zelazo PD (2005) Assessment of hot and cool executive function in young children: age-related changes and individual differences. Dev Neuropsychol 28(2):617–644 PubMed
24.
go back to reference Zelazo PD, Carlson SM (2012) Hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: development and plasticity. Child Dev Perspect 6(4):354–360 Zelazo PD, Carlson SM (2012) Hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: development and plasticity. Child Dev Perspect 6(4):354–360
25.
go back to reference Kim S, Nordling JK, Yoon JE, Boldt LJ, Kochanska G (2013) Effortful control in “hot” and “cool” tasks differentially predicts children’s behavior problems and academic performance. J Abnorm Child Psychol 41(1):43–56 PubMedPubMedCentral Kim S, Nordling JK, Yoon JE, Boldt LJ, Kochanska G (2013) Effortful control in “hot” and “cool” tasks differentially predicts children’s behavior problems and academic performance. J Abnorm Child Psychol 41(1):43–56 PubMedPubMedCentral
26.
go back to reference Backer-Grøndahl A, Nærde A, Idsoe T (2019) Hot and cool self-regulation, academic competence, and maladjustment: mediating and differential relations. Child Dev 90(6):2171–2188 PubMed Backer-Grøndahl A, Nærde A, Idsoe T (2019) Hot and cool self-regulation, academic competence, and maladjustment: mediating and differential relations. Child Dev 90(6):2171–2188 PubMed
27.
go back to reference Mischel W, Ebbesen EB (1970) Attention in delay of gratification. J Pers Soc Psychol 16(2):329–337 Mischel W, Ebbesen EB (1970) Attention in delay of gratification. J Pers Soc Psychol 16(2):329–337
28.
go back to reference Gilliom M, Shaw DS, Beck JE, Schonberg MA, Lukon JL (2002) Anger regulation in disadvantaged preschool boys: strategies, antecedents, and the development of self-control. Dev Psychol 38(2):222–235 PubMed Gilliom M, Shaw DS, Beck JE, Schonberg MA, Lukon JL (2002) Anger regulation in disadvantaged preschool boys: strategies, antecedents, and the development of self-control. Dev Psychol 38(2):222–235 PubMed
29.
go back to reference Zhou Q, Chen SH, Main A (2012) Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: a call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Dev Perspect 6(2):112–121 Zhou Q, Chen SH, Main A (2012) Commonalities and differences in the research on children’s effortful control and executive function: a call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Dev Perspect 6(2):112–121
30.
go back to reference Duckworth AL, Kern ML (2011) A meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. J Res Pers 45(3):259–268 PubMedPubMedCentral Duckworth AL, Kern ML (2011) A meta-analysis of the convergent validity of self-control measures. J Res Pers 45(3):259–268 PubMedPubMedCentral
31.
go back to reference Cataldo MG, Nobile M, Lorusso ML, Battaglia M, Molteni M (2005) Impulsivity in depressed children and adolescents: a comparison between behavioral and neuropsychological data. Psychiatry Res 136(2):123–133 PubMed Cataldo MG, Nobile M, Lorusso ML, Battaglia M, Molteni M (2005) Impulsivity in depressed children and adolescents: a comparison between behavioral and neuropsychological data. Psychiatry Res 136(2):123–133 PubMed
32.
go back to reference Buckner JC, Mezzacappa E, Beardslee WR (2009) Self-regulation and its relations to adaptive functioning in low income youths. Am J Orthopsychiatry 79(1):19–30 PubMed Buckner JC, Mezzacappa E, Beardslee WR (2009) Self-regulation and its relations to adaptive functioning in low income youths. Am J Orthopsychiatry 79(1):19–30 PubMed
33.
go back to reference Murray KT, Kochanska G (2002) Effortful control: factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. J Abnorm Child Psychol 30(5):503–514 PubMed Murray KT, Kochanska G (2002) Effortful control: factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. J Abnorm Child Psychol 30(5):503–514 PubMed
34.
go back to reference Lengua LJ (2003) Associations among emotionality, self-regulation, adjustment problems, and positive adjustment in middle childhood. J Appl Dev Psychol 24(5):595–618 Lengua LJ (2003) Associations among emotionality, self-regulation, adjustment problems, and positive adjustment in middle childhood. J Appl Dev Psychol 24(5):595–618
35.
go back to reference Lengua LJ (2008) Anxiousness, frustration, and effortful control as moderators of the relation between parenting and adjustment in middle-childhood. Soc Dev 17(3):554–577 Lengua LJ (2008) Anxiousness, frustration, and effortful control as moderators of the relation between parenting and adjustment in middle-childhood. Soc Dev 17(3):554–577
36.
go back to reference Meyer A (2017) A biomarker of anxiety in children and adolescents: a review focusing on the error-related negativity (ERN) and anxiety across development. Dev Cogn Neurosci 27:58–68 PubMedPubMedCentral Meyer A (2017) A biomarker of anxiety in children and adolescents: a review focusing on the error-related negativity (ERN) and anxiety across development. Dev Cogn Neurosci 27:58–68 PubMedPubMedCentral
37.
go back to reference Jaffee SR, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Fombonne E, Poulton R, Martin J (2002) Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(3):215–222 PubMed Jaffee SR, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Fombonne E, Poulton R, Martin J (2002) Differences in early childhood risk factors for juvenile-onset and adult-onset depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(3):215–222 PubMed
38.
go back to reference Petty CR, Rosenbaum JF, Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Henin A, Hubley S, LaCasse S et al (2008) The child behavior checklist broad-band scales predict subsequent psychopathology: a 5-year follow-up. J Anxiety Disord 22(3):532–539 PubMed Petty CR, Rosenbaum JF, Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Henin A, Hubley S, LaCasse S et al (2008) The child behavior checklist broad-band scales predict subsequent psychopathology: a 5-year follow-up. J Anxiety Disord 22(3):532–539 PubMed
39.
go back to reference Goldsmith HH, Reilly J, Lemery KS, Longley S, Prescott A (1993) Preliminary manual for the preschool laboratory temperament assessment battery (Technical report Version 1.0). Department of Psychology University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison Goldsmith HH, Reilly J, Lemery KS, Longley S, Prescott A (1993) Preliminary manual for the preschool laboratory temperament assessment battery (Technical report Version 1.0). Department of Psychology University of Wisconsin—Madison, Madison
40.
go back to reference Grammer JK, Carrasco M, Gehring WJ, Morrison FJ (2014) Age-related changes in error processing in young children: a school-based investigation. Dev Cogn Neurosci 9:93–105 PubMedPubMedCentral Grammer JK, Carrasco M, Gehring WJ, Morrison FJ (2014) Age-related changes in error processing in young children: a school-based investigation. Dev Cogn Neurosci 9:93–105 PubMedPubMedCentral
41.
go back to reference McDermott JNM, Pérez-Edgar K, Fox NA (2007) Variations of the flanker paradigm: assessming selective attention in young children. Behav Res Methods 39:62–70 PubMed McDermott JNM, Pérez-Edgar K, Fox NA (2007) Variations of the flanker paradigm: assessming selective attention in young children. Behav Res Methods 39:62–70 PubMed
42.
go back to reference Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Hershey KL, Fisher P (2001) Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: the children’s behavior questionnaire. Child Dev 72(5):1394–1408 PubMed Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Hershey KL, Fisher P (2001) Investigations of temperament at three to seven years: the children’s behavior questionnaire. Child Dev 72(5):1394–1408 PubMed
43.
go back to reference Morris N, Keane S, Calkins S, Shanahan L, O’Brien M (2014) Differential components of reactivity and attentional control predicting externalizing behavior. J Appl Dev Psychol 35(3):121–127 PubMedPubMedCentral Morris N, Keane S, Calkins S, Shanahan L, O’Brien M (2014) Differential components of reactivity and attentional control predicting externalizing behavior. J Appl Dev Psychol 35(3):121–127 PubMedPubMedCentral
44.
go back to reference Wright L, Lipszyc J, Dupuis A, Thayapararajah SW, Schachar R (2014) Response inhibition and psychopathology: a meta-analysis of go/no-go task performance. J Abnorm Psychol 123(2):429–439 PubMed Wright L, Lipszyc J, Dupuis A, Thayapararajah SW, Schachar R (2014) Response inhibition and psychopathology: a meta-analysis of go/no-go task performance. J Abnorm Psychol 123(2):429–439 PubMed
45.
go back to reference Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2000) Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families University of Vermont, Burlington Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2000) Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families University of Vermont, Burlington
46.
go back to reference Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2001) Manual for ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families University of Vermont, Burlington Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2001) Manual for ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families University of Vermont, Burlington
47.
go back to reference Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao UMA, Flynn C, Moreci P et al (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Psy 36(7):980–988 Kaufman J, Birmaher B, Brent D, Rao UMA, Flynn C, Moreci P et al (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Psy 36(7):980–988
48.
go back to reference Racer KH, Dishion TJ (2012) Disordered attention: Implications for understanding and treating internalizing and externalizing disorders in childhood. Cogn Behav Pract 19(1):31–40 PubMedPubMedCentral Racer KH, Dishion TJ (2012) Disordered attention: Implications for understanding and treating internalizing and externalizing disorders in childhood. Cogn Behav Pract 19(1):31–40 PubMedPubMedCentral
49.
go back to reference Eisenberg N, Sadovsky A, Spinrad TL, Fabes RA, Losoya SH, Valiente C (2005) The relations of problem behavior status to children’s negative emotionality, effortful control, and impulsivity: concurrent relations and prediction of change. Dev Psychol 41(1):193–211 PubMedPubMedCentral Eisenberg N, Sadovsky A, Spinrad TL, Fabes RA, Losoya SH, Valiente C (2005) The relations of problem behavior status to children’s negative emotionality, effortful control, and impulsivity: concurrent relations and prediction of change. Dev Psychol 41(1):193–211 PubMedPubMedCentral
50.
go back to reference Ip K, Jester JM, Sameroff A, Olson SL (2019) Linking research domain criteria (RDoC) constructs to developmental psychopathology: the role of self-regulation and emotion knowledge in the development of internalizing and externalizing growth trajectories from ages 3 to 10. Dev Psychol 31(4):1557–1574 Ip K, Jester JM, Sameroff A, Olson SL (2019) Linking research domain criteria (RDoC) constructs to developmental psychopathology: the role of self-regulation and emotion knowledge in the development of internalizing and externalizing growth trajectories from ages 3 to 10. Dev Psychol 31(4):1557–1574
51.
go back to reference Block JH, Block J (1980) The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In: Collins WA (ed) Minnesota symposium on child psychology, vol 13. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 39–101 Block JH, Block J (1980) The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In: Collins WA (ed) Minnesota symposium on child psychology, vol 13. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 39–101
52.
go back to reference Kujawa A, Burkhouse KL (2017) Vulnerability to depression in youth: advances from affective neuroscience. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2(1):28–37 PubMedPubMedCentral Kujawa A, Burkhouse KL (2017) Vulnerability to depression in youth: advances from affective neuroscience. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2(1):28–37 PubMedPubMedCentral
Metagegevens
Titel
Self-regulation and Psychopathology in Young Children
Auteurs
Jamie M. Lawler
Jerrica Pitzen
Kristin M. Aho
Ka I. Ip
Yanni Liu
Jessica L. Hruschak
Maria Muzik
Katherine L. Rosenblum
Kate D. Fitzgerald
Publicatiedatum
11-02-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Print ISSN: 0009-398X
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3327
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-022-01322-x