Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in:

14-09-2018 | Original Paper

Self-Focused Attention and Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Auteurs: Amy Burns, Mandy Irvine, Kate Woodcock

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 2/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms and in the general population self-focused attention has been associated with depression. Here, we aimed to examine the relationships between aspects of self-focused attention and symptoms of depression in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. 113 adults with a diagnosis of ASD completed self-report questionnaires. Results found that higher levels of brooding, and to a lesser degree, reflection predicted increased depressive symptoms. However, higher levels of private self-consciousness actually predicted decreased depressive symptoms. Differential relationships were observed for males and females. The current study highlights the importance of using a multidimensional approach to examining self-focused attention in ASD, and its important relationship with depression.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Participants over age 65 was an original exclusion criterion in order to increase the generalisability of the results. However two participants over 65 (< 69 years old) completed the survey. These responses were included in the final analysis as it was judged that these data would not reduce the overall representativeness of an adult sample.
 
2
A regression model was run including AQ-10 scores as a predictor. This model was statistically significant and explained 40.9% of the variance in depressive scores however a decision was made to remove this variable given the low α 0.63. Removal of the AQ-10 did not significantly reduce the model’s predictive ability to explain variance in depressive scores. The sample was then split two ways on the basis of AQ-10 scores, (a) using clinical cut off of 6 and (b) using the median score which resulted in a more evenly split sample. Results were equivalent to those reported in Table 5, supporting the assertion that ASD symptom severity as measured by the AQ-10 did not influence the relationship between depression and self-focused attention.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Aldoa, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237.CrossRefPubMed Aldoa, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237.CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Allison, C., Auyeung, B., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). Toward brief “red flags” for autism screening: The short autism spectrum quotient and the short quantitative checklist in 1,000 cases and 3,000 controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(2), 202–212.CrossRef Allison, C., Auyeung, B., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). Toward brief “red flags” for autism screening: The short autism spectrum quotient and the short quantitative checklist in 1,000 cases and 3,000 controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(2), 202–212.CrossRef
go back to reference Anderson, E. M., Bohon, L. M., & Berrigan, L. P. (1996). Factor structure of the private self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 144–152.PubMedCrossRef Anderson, E. M., Bohon, L. M., & Berrigan, L. P. (1996). Factor structure of the private self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 144–152.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Arditte, K. A., & Joormann, J. (2011). Emotion regulation in depression: Reflection predicts recovery from a major depressive episode. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 536–543.CrossRef Arditte, K. A., & Joormann, J. (2011). Emotion regulation in depression: Reflection predicts recovery from a major depressive episode. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 536–543.CrossRef
go back to reference Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 396–402.CrossRef Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 396–402.CrossRef
go back to reference Barnhill, G. P. (2001). Social attributions and depression in adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(1), 46–53.CrossRef Barnhill, G. P. (2001). Social attributions and depression in adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(1), 46–53.CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.CrossRef
go back to reference Blackshaw, A. J., Kinderman, P., Hare, D. J., & Hatton, C. (2001). Theory of mind, causal attribution and paranoia in Asperger syndrome. Autism, 5(2), 147–163.PubMedCrossRef Blackshaw, A. J., Kinderman, P., Hare, D. J., & Hatton, C. (2001). Theory of mind, causal attribution and paranoia in Asperger syndrome. Autism, 5(2), 147–163.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Booth, T., Murray, A. L., McKenzie, K., Kuenssberg, R., O’Donnell, M., & Burnett, H. (2013). Brief report: An evaluation of the AQ-10 as a brief screening instrument for ASD in adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2997–3000.PubMedCrossRef Booth, T., Murray, A. L., McKenzie, K., Kuenssberg, R., O’Donnell, M., & Burnett, H. (2013). Brief report: An evaluation of the AQ-10 as a brief screening instrument for ASD in adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2997–3000.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Breen, J., & Hare, D. J. (2017). The nature and prevalence of catatonic symptoms in young people with autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(6), 580–593.PubMedCrossRef Breen, J., & Hare, D. J. (2017). The nature and prevalence of catatonic symptoms in young people with autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(6), 580–593.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Burnkrant, R. E., & Page, T. J. Jr. (1984). A modification of the Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss self-consciousness scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(6), 629–637.PubMedCrossRef Burnkrant, R. E., & Page, T. J. Jr. (1984). A modification of the Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss self-consciousness scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(6), 629–637.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cassidy, S., Bradley, P., Robinson, J., Allison, C., McHugh, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2014). Suicidal ideation and suicide plans or attempts in adults with Asperger’s syndrome attending a specialist diagnostic clinic: A clinical cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(2), 142–147.PubMedCrossRef Cassidy, S., Bradley, P., Robinson, J., Allison, C., McHugh, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2014). Suicidal ideation and suicide plans or attempts in adults with Asperger’s syndrome attending a specialist diagnostic clinic: A clinical cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(2), 142–147.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284.CrossRef Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284.CrossRef
go back to reference Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2013). Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: The role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind. Autism, 17(2), 205–219.PubMedCrossRef Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2013). Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: The role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind. Autism, 17(2), 205–219.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Davidson, J., & Henderson, V. L. (2010). ‘Coming out’on the spectrum: autism, identity and disclosure. Social & Cultural Geography, 11(2), 155–170.CrossRef Davidson, J., & Henderson, V. L. (2010). ‘Coming out’on the spectrum: autism, identity and disclosure. Social & Cultural Geography, 11(2), 155–170.CrossRef
go back to reference Fejfar, M. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (2000). Effect of private self-awareness on negative affect and self-referent attribution: A quantitative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 132–142.CrossRef Fejfar, M. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (2000). Effect of private self-awareness on negative affect and self-referent attribution: A quantitative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 132–142.CrossRef
go back to reference Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 522–527.CrossRef Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 522–527.CrossRef
go back to reference Frith, U. (2003). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell. Frith, U. (2003). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 299–306.PubMedCrossRef Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 299–306.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gotham, K., Bishop, S. L., Brunwasser, S., & Lord, C. (2014). Rumination and perceived impairment associated with depressive symptoms in a verbal adolescent–adult ASD sample. Autism Research, 7(3), 381–391.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Gotham, K., Bishop, S. L., Brunwasser, S., & Lord, C. (2014). Rumination and perceived impairment associated with depressive symptoms in a verbal adolescent–adult ASD sample. Autism Research, 7(3), 381–391.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Gotham, K., Unruh, K., & Lord, C. (2015). Depression and its measurement in verbal adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 19(4), 491–504.PubMedCrossRef Gotham, K., Unruh, K., & Lord, C. (2015). Depression and its measurement in verbal adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 19(4), 491–504.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Greenlaw, C., & Brown-Welty, S. (2009). A comparison of web-based and paper-based survey methods testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost. Evaluation Review, 33(5), 464–480.PubMedCrossRef Greenlaw, C., & Brown-Welty, S. (2009). A comparison of web-based and paper-based survey methods testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost. Evaluation Review, 33(5), 464–480.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1999). Theory of mind and self‐consciousness: What is it like to be autistic? Mind & Language, 14(1), 5–22. Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1999). Theory of mind and self‐consciousness: What is it like to be autistic? Mind & Language, 14(1), 5–22.
go back to reference Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. A. (2011). Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being. The Journal of Psychology, 145(1), 39–57.PubMedCrossRef Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. A. (2011). Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being. The Journal of Psychology, 145(1), 39–57.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Henderson, C., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 777–780.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Henderson, C., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 777–780.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nydén, A., Wentz, E., Ståhlberg, O., et al. (2009). Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 9(1), 35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nydén, A., Wentz, E., Ståhlberg, O., et al. (2009). Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 9(1), 35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 156–176.PubMedCrossRef Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 156–176.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Iqbal, N., & Dar, K. A. (2015). Negative affectivity, depression, and anxiety: Does rumination mediate the links? Journal of Affective Disorders, 181, 18–23.PubMedCrossRef Iqbal, N., & Dar, K. A. (2015). Negative affectivity, depression, and anxiety: Does rumination mediate the links? Journal of Affective Disorders, 181, 18–23.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Joormann, J., Dkane, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2006). Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases. Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 269–280.PubMedCrossRef Joormann, J., Dkane, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2006). Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases. Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 269–280.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kiep, M., Spek, A. A., & Hoeben, L. (2015). Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an Autism spectrum disorder: Do treatment effects last? Mindfulness, 6(3), 637–644.CrossRef Kiep, M., Spek, A. A., & Hoeben, L. (2015). Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an Autism spectrum disorder: Do treatment effects last? Mindfulness, 6(3), 637–644.CrossRef
go back to reference Lind, S. E. (2010). Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework. Autism, 14(5), 430–456.PubMedCrossRef Lind, S. E. (2010). Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework. Autism, 14(5), 430–456.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lo, C. S. L., Ho, S. M. Y., & Hollon, S. D. (2008). The effects of rumination and negative cognitive styles on depression: A mediation analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(4), 487–495.PubMedCrossRef Lo, C. S. L., Ho, S. M. Y., & Hollon, S. D. (2008). The effects of rumination and negative cognitive styles on depression: A mediation analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(4), 487–495.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lombardo, M. V., Barnes, J. L., Wheelwright, S. J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2007). Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism. PLoS ONE, 2(9), e883. Lombardo, M. V., Barnes, J. L., Wheelwright, S. J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2007). Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism. PLoS ONE, 2(9), e883.
go back to reference Lugnegård, T., Hallerbäck, M. U., & Gillberg, C. (2011). Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 1910–1917.PubMedCrossRef Lugnegård, T., Hallerbäck, M. U., & Gillberg, C. (2011). Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 1910–1917.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Martin, A. J., & Debus, R. L. (1999). Alternative factor structure for the revised self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72(2), 266–281.CrossRef Martin, A. J., & Debus, R. L. (1999). Alternative factor structure for the revised self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72(2), 266–281.CrossRef
go back to reference Meyer, J. A., Mundy, P. C., Van Hecke, A. V., & Durocher, J. S. (2006). Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10(4), 383–402.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Meyer, J. A., Mundy, P. C., Van Hecke, A. V., & Durocher, J. S. (2006). Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10(4), 383–402.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Millward, C., Powell, S., Messer, D., & Jordan, R. (2000). Recall for self and other in autism: Children’s memory for events experienced by themselves and their peers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(1), 15–28.PubMedCrossRef Millward, C., Powell, S., Messer, D., & Jordan, R. (2000). Recall for self and other in autism: Children’s memory for events experienced by themselves and their peers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(1), 15–28.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638.PubMedCrossRef Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Munir, K. M. (2016). The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(2), 95–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Munir, K. M. (2016). The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(2), 95–102.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511.PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061–1072.PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061–1072.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424.PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Olatunji, B. O., Naragon-Gainey, K., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2013). Specificity of rumination in anxiety and depression: A multimodal meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(3), 225–257. Olatunji, B. O., Naragon-Gainey, K., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2013). Specificity of rumination in anxiety and depression: A multimodal meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(3), 225–257.
go back to reference Pahnke, J., Lundgren, T., Hursti, T., & Hirvikoski, T. (2014). Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A quasi-experimental pilot study. Autism, 18(8), 953–964.PubMedCrossRef Pahnke, J., Lundgren, T., Hursti, T., & Hirvikoski, T. (2014). Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A quasi-experimental pilot study. Autism, 18(8), 953–964.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Philippi, C. L., & Koenigs, M. (2014). The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 54, 55–63.PubMedCrossRef Philippi, C. L., & Koenigs, M. (2014). The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 54, 55–63.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Richards, D., Richardson, T., Timulak, L., Vigano, N., Mooney, J., Doherty, G., et al. (2016). Predictors of depression severity in a treatment-seeking sample. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16, 221–229.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Richards, D., Richardson, T., Timulak, L., Vigano, N., Mooney, J., Doherty, G., et al. (2016). Predictors of depression severity in a treatment-seeking sample. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16, 221–229.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Roelofs, J., Muris, P., Huibers, M., Peeters, F., & Arntz, A. (2006). On the measurement of rumination: A psychometric evaluation of the ruminative response scale and the rumination on sadness scale in undergraduates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37(4), 299–313.PubMedCrossRef Roelofs, J., Muris, P., Huibers, M., Peeters, F., & Arntz, A. (2006). On the measurement of rumination: A psychometric evaluation of the ruminative response scale and the rumination on sadness scale in undergraduates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37(4), 299–313.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rogers, T. B., Kuiper, N. A., & Kirker, W. S. (1977). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(9), 677.PubMedCrossRef Rogers, T. B., Kuiper, N. A., & Kirker, W. S. (1977). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(9), 677.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rood, L., Roelofs, J., Bögels, S. M., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schouten, E. (2009). The influence of emotion-focused rumination and distraction on depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(7), 607–616.PubMedCrossRef Rood, L., Roelofs, J., Bögels, S. M., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schouten, E. (2009). The influence of emotion-focused rumination and distraction on depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(7), 607–616.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). The self-consciousness scale: A revised version for use with general populations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15(8), 687–699.CrossRef Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). The self-consciousness scale: A revised version for use with general populations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15(8), 687–699.CrossRef
go back to reference Schoofs, H., Hermans, D., & Raes, F. (Dec 2010). Brooding and reflection as subtypes of rumination: Evidence from confirmatory factor analysis in nonclinical samples using the dutch ruminative response scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(4), 609–617.CrossRef Schoofs, H., Hermans, D., & Raes, F. (Dec 2010). Brooding and reflection as subtypes of rumination: Evidence from confirmatory factor analysis in nonclinical samples using the dutch ruminative response scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(4), 609–617.CrossRef
go back to reference Şenormanci, Ö, Yılmaz, A. E., Saraçli, Ö, Atasoy, N., Şenormanci, G., & Atik, L. (2014). The mediator role of ruminative thinking style in the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(7), 1556–1560.PubMedCrossRef Şenormanci, Ö, Yılmaz, A. E., Saraçli, Ö, Atasoy, N., Şenormanci, G., & Atik, L. (2014). The mediator role of ruminative thinking style in the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(7), 1556–1560.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smith, K. R., & Matson, J. L. (2010). Psychopathology: Differences among adults with intellectually disabled, comorbid autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(3), 743–749.PubMedCrossRef Smith, K. R., & Matson, J. L. (2010). Psychopathology: Differences among adults with intellectually disabled, comorbid autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(3), 743–749.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Spek, A. A., Van Ham, N. C., & Nyklíček, I. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an autism spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 246–253.PubMedCrossRef Spek, A. A., Van Ham, N. C., & Nyklíček, I. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an autism spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 246–253.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Dimensions of the beck depression inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 117–128.PubMedCrossRef Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Dimensions of the beck depression inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 117–128.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sterling, L., Dawson, G., Estes, A., & Greenson, J. (2008). Characteristics associated with presence of depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1011–1018.PubMedCrossRef Sterling, L., Dawson, G., Estes, A., & Greenson, J. (2008). Characteristics associated with presence of depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1011–1018.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stewart, M. E., Barnard, L., Pearson, J., Hasan, R., & O’Brien, G. (2006). Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: A review. Autism, 10(1), 103–116.PubMedCrossRef Stewart, M. E., Barnard, L., Pearson, J., Hasan, R., & O’Brien, G. (2006). Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: A review. Autism, 10(1), 103–116.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Storch, E. A., Roberti, J. W., & Roth, D. A. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the beck depression inventory—second edition in a sample of college students. Depression and Anxiety, 19(3), 187–189.PubMedCrossRef Storch, E. A., Roberti, J. W., & Roth, D. A. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the beck depression inventory—second edition in a sample of college students. Depression and Anxiety, 19(3), 187–189.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tantam, D. (2000). Psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(1), 47–62.CrossRef Tantam, D. (2000). Psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(1), 47–62.CrossRef
go back to reference Toichi, M., Kamio, Y., Okada, T., Sakihama, M., Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., et al. (2002). A lack of self-consciousness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(8), 1422–1424.PubMedCrossRef Toichi, M., Kamio, Y., Okada, T., Sakihama, M., Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., et al. (2002). A lack of self-consciousness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(8), 1422–1424.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 284–304.PubMedCrossRef Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 284–304.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.CrossRef Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.CrossRef
go back to reference Verhoeven, E., Marijnissen, N., Berger, H., Oudshoorn, J., Van Der Sijde, A., & Teunisse, J. (2012). Brief report: Relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 889–894.PubMedCrossRef Verhoeven, E., Marijnissen, N., Berger, H., Oudshoorn, J., Van Der Sijde, A., & Teunisse, J. (2012). Brief report: Relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 889–894.PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Watkins, E. R. (2009). Depressive rumination and co-morbidity: Evidence for brooding as a transdiagnostic process. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27(3), 160–175.CrossRef Watkins, E. R. (2009). Depressive rumination and co-morbidity: Evidence for brooding as a transdiagnostic process. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27(3), 160–175.CrossRef
go back to reference Whitmer, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Brooding and reflection reconsidered: A factor analytic examination of rumination in currently depressed, formerly depressed, and never depressed individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(2), 99–107.CrossRef Whitmer, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Brooding and reflection reconsidered: A factor analytic examination of rumination in currently depressed, formerly depressed, and never depressed individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(2), 99–107.CrossRef
go back to reference Wing, L. (1981). Asperger’s syndrome: a clinical account. Psychological Medicine, 11(01), 115–129.PubMedCrossRef Wing, L. (1981). Asperger’s syndrome: a clinical account. Psychological Medicine, 11(01), 115–129.PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Self-Focused Attention and Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Auteurs
Amy Burns
Mandy Irvine
Kate Woodcock
Publicatiedatum
14-09-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 2/2019
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3732-5

Andere artikelen Uitgave 2/2019

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2/2019 Naar de uitgave