Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3732-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Adults with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms and in the general population self-focused attention has been associated with depression. Here, we aimed to examine the relationships between aspects of self-focused attention and symptoms of depression in individuals with a diagnosis of ASD. 113 adults with a diagnosis of ASD completed self-report questionnaires. Results found that higher levels of brooding, and to a lesser degree, reflection predicted increased depressive symptoms. However, higher levels of private self-consciousness actually predicted decreased depressive symptoms. Differential relationships were observed for males and females. The current study highlights the importance of using a multidimensional approach to examining self-focused attention in ASD, and its important relationship with depression.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 384 KB)10803_2018_3732_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Aldoa, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237.
Allison, C., Auyeung, B., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). Toward brief “red flags” for autism screening: The short autism spectrum quotient and the short quantitative checklist in 1,000 cases and 3,000 controls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(2), 202–212.
Anderson, E. M., Bohon, L. M., & Berrigan, L. P. (1996). Factor structure of the private self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 144–152.
Arditte, K. A., & Joormann, J. (2011). Emotion regulation in depression: Reflection predicts recovery from a major depressive episode. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 536–543.
Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, 396–402.
Barnhill, G. P. (2001). Social attributions and depression in adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(1), 46–53.
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.
Blackshaw, A. J., Kinderman, P., Hare, D. J., & Hatton, C. (2001). Theory of mind, causal attribution and paranoia in Asperger syndrome. Autism, 5(2), 147–163.
Booth, T., Murray, A. L., McKenzie, K., Kuenssberg, R., O’Donnell, M., & Burnett, H. (2013). Brief report: An evaluation of the AQ-10 as a brief screening instrument for ASD in adults. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(12), 2997–3000.
Breen, J., & Hare, D. J. (2017). The nature and prevalence of catatonic symptoms in young people with autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(6), 580–593.
British Psychological Society (2010). Code of human research ethics. Retrieved from http://www.bps.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/code_of_human_research_ethics.pdf.
British Psychological Society (2013). Ethics guidelines for internet mediated research. Retrieved from http://www.bps.org.uk/system/files/Public%20files/inf206-guidelines-for-internet-mediated-research.pdf.
Burnkrant, R. E., & Page, T. J. Jr. (1984). A modification of the Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss self-consciousness scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(6), 629–637.
Cassidy, S., Bradley, P., Robinson, J., Allison, C., McHugh, M., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2014). Suicidal ideation and suicide plans or attempts in adults with Asperger’s syndrome attending a specialist diagnostic clinic: A clinical cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(2), 142–147.
Cicchetti, D. V. (1994). Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology. Psychological Assessment, 6(4), 284.
Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2013). Autobiographical memory in adults with autism spectrum disorder: The role of depressed mood, rumination, working memory and theory of mind. Autism, 17(2), 205–219.
Davidson, J., & Henderson, V. L. (2010). ‘Coming out’on the spectrum: autism, identity and disclosure. Social & Cultural Geography, 11(2), 155–170.
Fejfar, M. C., & Hoyle, R. H. (2000). Effect of private self-awareness on negative affect and self-referent attribution: A quantitative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(2), 132–142.
Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(4), 522–527.
Frith, U. (2003). Autism: Explaining the enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ghaziuddin, M., Ghaziuddin, N., & Greden, J. (2002). Depression in persons with autism: Implications for research and clinical care. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(4), 299–306.
Gotham, K., Bishop, S. L., Brunwasser, S., & Lord, C. (2014). Rumination and perceived impairment associated with depressive symptoms in a verbal adolescent–adult ASD sample. Autism Research, 7(3), 381–391.
Gotham, K., Unruh, K., & Lord, C. (2015). Depression and its measurement in verbal adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 19(4), 491–504.
Greenlaw, C., & Brown-Welty, S. (2009). A comparison of web-based and paper-based survey methods testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost. Evaluation Review, 33(5), 464–480.
Happé, F., & Frith, U. (1999). Theory of mind and self‐consciousness: What is it like to be autistic? Mind & Language, 14(1), 5–22.
Harrington, R., & Loffredo, D. A. (2011). Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being. The Journal of Psychology, 145(1), 39–57.
Henderson, C., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 777–780.
Hofvander, B., Delorme, R., Chaste, P., Nydén, A., Wentz, E., Ståhlberg, O., et al. (2009). Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 9(1), 35.
Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 156–176.
Iqbal, N., & Dar, K. A. (2015). Negative affectivity, depression, and anxiety: Does rumination mediate the links? Journal of Affective Disorders, 181, 18–23.
Johnson, D. P., & Whisman, M. A. (2013). Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(4), 367–374.
Joormann, J., Dkane, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2006). Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases. Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 269–280.
Kiep, M., Spek, A. A., & Hoeben, L. (2015). Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an Autism spectrum disorder: Do treatment effects last? Mindfulness, 6(3), 637–644.
Lind, S. E. (2010). Memory and the self in autism: A review and theoretical framework. Autism, 14(5), 430–456.
Lo, C. S. L., Ho, S. M. Y., & Hollon, S. D. (2008). The effects of rumination and negative cognitive styles on depression: A mediation analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(4), 487–495.
Lombardo, M. V., Barnes, J. L., Wheelwright, S. J., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2007). Self-referential cognition and empathy in autism. PLoS ONE, 2(9), e883.
Lugnegård, T., Hallerbäck, M. U., & Gillberg, C. (2011). Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(5), 1910–1917.
Martin, A. J., & Debus, R. L. (1999). Alternative factor structure for the revised self-consciousness scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72(2), 266–281.
Merino, H., Senra, C., & Ferreiro, F. (2016). Are worry and rumination specific pathways linking neuroticism and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder? Plos ONE, 11(5), e0156169. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156169.
Meyer, J. A., Mundy, P. C., Van Hecke, A. V., & Durocher, J. S. (2006). Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 10(4), 383–402.
Millward, C., Powell, S., Messer, D., & Jordan, R. (2000). Recall for self and other in autism: Children’s memory for events experienced by themselves and their peers. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(1), 15–28.
Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638.
Munir, K. M. (2016). The co-occurrence of mental disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(2), 95–102.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1061–1072.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400–424.
Olatunji, B. O., Naragon-Gainey, K., & Wolitzky-Taylor, K. B. (2013). Specificity of rumination in anxiety and depression: A multimodal meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(3), 225–257.
Pahnke, J., Lundgren, T., Hursti, T., & Hirvikoski, T. (2014). Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A quasi-experimental pilot study. Autism, 18(8), 953–964.
Philippi, C. L., & Koenigs, M. (2014). The neuropsychology of self-reflection in psychiatric illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 54, 55–63.
Richards, D., Richardson, T., Timulak, L., Vigano, N., Mooney, J., Doherty, G., et al. (2016). Predictors of depression severity in a treatment-seeking sample. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16, 221–229.
Roelofs, J., Muris, P., Huibers, M., Peeters, F., & Arntz, A. (2006). On the measurement of rumination: A psychometric evaluation of the ruminative response scale and the rumination on sadness scale in undergraduates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 37(4), 299–313.
Rogers, T. B., Kuiper, N. A., & Kirker, W. S. (1977). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(9), 677.
Rood, L., Roelofs, J., Bögels, S. M., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schouten, E. (2009). The influence of emotion-focused rumination and distraction on depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(7), 607–616.
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). The self-consciousness scale: A revised version for use with general populations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15(8), 687–699.
Schoofs, H., Hermans, D., & Raes, F. (Dec 2010). Brooding and reflection as subtypes of rumination: Evidence from confirmatory factor analysis in nonclinical samples using the dutch ruminative response scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(4), 609–617.
Şenormanci, Ö, Yılmaz, A. E., Saraçli, Ö, Atasoy, N., Şenormanci, G., & Atik, L. (2014). The mediator role of ruminative thinking style in the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(7), 1556–1560.
Smith, K. R., & Matson, J. L. (2010). Psychopathology: Differences among adults with intellectually disabled, comorbid autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(3), 743–749.
Spek, A. A., Van Ham, N. C., & Nyklíček, I. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy in adults with an autism spectrum disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 246–253.
Steer, R. A., Ball, R., Ranieri, W. F., & Beck, A. T. (1999). Dimensions of the beck depression inventory-II in clinically depressed outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 117–128.
Sterling, L., Dawson, G., Estes, A., & Greenson, J. (2008). Characteristics associated with presence of depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1011–1018.
Stewart, M. E., Barnard, L., Pearson, J., Hasan, R., & O’Brien, G. (2006). Presentation of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome: A review. Autism, 10(1), 103–116.
Storch, E. A., Roberti, J. W., & Roth, D. A. (2004). Factor structure, concurrent validity, and internal consistency of the beck depression inventory—second edition in a sample of college students. Depression and Anxiety, 19(3), 187–189.
Tantam, D. (2000). Psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism, 4(1), 47–62.
Toichi, M., Kamio, Y., Okada, T., Sakihama, M., Youngstrom, E. A., Findling, R. L., et al. (2002). A lack of self-consciousness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(8), 1422–1424.
Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 284–304.
Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.
Verhoeven, E., Marijnissen, N., Berger, H., Oudshoorn, J., Van Der Sijde, A., & Teunisse, J. (2012). Brief report: Relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(5), 889–894.
Watkins, E. R. (2009). Depressive rumination and co-morbidity: Evidence for brooding as a transdiagnostic process. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27(3), 160–175.
Werling, D. M., & Geschwind, D. H. (2013). Sex differences in autism spectrum disorders. Current Opinion in Neurology, 26(2), 146–153.
Whitmer, A., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Brooding and reflection reconsidered: A factor analytic examination of rumination in currently depressed, formerly depressed, and never depressed individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(2), 99–107.
Wing, L. (1981). Asperger’s syndrome: a clinical account. Psychological Medicine, 11(01), 115–129.
World Health Organization. (201). Depression and other common mental disorders: Global health estimates. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/254610. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
- Self-Focused Attention and Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
- Springer US