The self-efficacy belief (SEB) concept is discussed in the context of parenting. A questionnaire, the Echelle Globale du Sentiment de Compétence Parentale (EGSCP), assessing several domain-specific SEBs and three related cognitive constructs, was developed with 705 French-speaking parents of 3- to 7-year-old children. The EGSCP displayed good psychometric properties. Age-related differences and differences between mothers and fathers illustrated the questionnaire’s discriminative properties. Relations were also found between EGSCP and several criterion variables: support, satisfaction, self-esteem and stress, childrearing behavior, and children’s social competence and behavior. The refinement of the SEB concept in the parenting context provides a more comprehensive view of both mothers’ and fathers’ cognition. The empirical and clinical implications of this are discussed.