Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness 4/2018

02-01-2018 | ORIGINAL PAPER

Self-Compassion Mediates Improvement in Well-being in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program in a Community-Based Sample

Auteurs: Susan Evans, Katarzyna Wyka, Katherine Thorpe Blaha, Elizabeth S. Allen

Gepubliceerd in: Mindfulness | Uitgave 4/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Numerous studies have found mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) to be useful for a range of problems including anxiety, pain, and coping with a medical illness. As the field matures, there is a growing interest in mediational factors associated with the beneficial effects of MBSR. Self-compassion is a construct of increasing focus in empirical study and may play a role in the change process leading to improvement in well-being through MBSR. The primary goal of this pilot study was to examine the role of self-compassion in producing improved well-being following an 8-week MBSR program with a community-based sample. Participants engaged in a MBSR program at a major academic medical center and completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS), Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) pre- and post-MBSR course. Results demonstrated significant reduction of symptoms on the POMS and significant increases on the MAAS and SCS at the end of the program, indicating notable improvements in well-being. Mediation analyses demonstrated that changes in self-compassion mediated the relationship between mindfulness and well-being following MBSR training (serial indirect effects; β = − 9.45, CI (− 39.06, − 7.50)). These results suggest that mindfulness may provide a pathway to cultivating self-compassion in MBSR, which may be associated with enhanced well-being.
Literatuur
go back to reference Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45. CrossRefPubMed Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2011). Self-compassion: conceptualizations, correlates, and interventions. Review of General Psychology, 4, 289–303. CrossRef Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2011). Self-compassion: conceptualizations, correlates, and interventions. Review of General Psychology, 4, 289–303. CrossRef
go back to reference Bazzano, A., Wolfe, C., Zylowska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2013). Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents and caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: a community-based approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 298–308. CrossRef Bazzano, A., Wolfe, C., Zylowska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2013). Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents and caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: a community-based approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 298–308. CrossRef
go back to reference Bergen-Cico, D., & Cheon, S. (2014). The mediating effects of mindfulness and self-compassion on trait anxiety. Mindfulness, 5, 505–519. CrossRef Bergen-Cico, D., & Cheon, S. (2014). The mediating effects of mindfulness and self-compassion on trait anxiety. Mindfulness, 5, 505–519. CrossRef
go back to reference Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health, 26, 359–371. CrossRef Birnie, K., Speca, M., & Carlson, L. E. (2010). Exploring self-compassion and empathy in the context of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Stress and Health, 26, 359–371. CrossRef
go back to reference Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. C., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. C., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: the role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. CrossRefPubMed Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: the role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 242–248. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Perils and promise in defining and measuring mindfulness: observations from experience. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 242–248.
go back to reference Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15, 593–600. CrossRefPubMed Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15, 593–600. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Felton, T. M., Coates, L., & Christopher, J. C. (2015). Impact of mindfulness training on counseling students’ perceptions of stress. Mindfulness, 6, 159–169. CrossRef Felton, T. M., Coates, L., & Christopher, J. C. (2015). Impact of mindfulness training on counseling students’ perceptions of stress. Mindfulness, 6, 159–169. CrossRef
go back to reference Gallegos, A. M., Hoerger, M., Talbot, N. L., Krasner, M. S., Knight, J. M., Moynihan, J. A., & Duberstein, P. R. (2013). Toward identifying the effects of the specific components of mindfulness-based stress reduction on biologic and emotional outcomes among older adults. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(10), 787–792. CrossRefPubMed Gallegos, A. M., Hoerger, M., Talbot, N. L., Krasner, M. S., Knight, J. M., Moynihan, J. A., & Duberstein, P. R. (2013). Toward identifying the effects of the specific components of mindfulness-based stress reduction on biologic and emotional outcomes among older adults. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(10), 787–792. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gilbert, P. (2010). Compassion focused therapy: Distinctive features. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. Gilbert, P. (2010). Compassion focused therapy: Distinctive features. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
go back to reference Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., Suarez, E. C., Brantley, J. G., Ekblad, A. G., Lynch, T. R., & Wolever, R. Q. (2015). Decreased symptoms of depression after mindfulness-based stress reduction: potential moderating effects of religiosity, spirituality, trait mindfulness, sex, and age. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21, 166–174. CrossRefPubMed Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., Suarez, E. C., Brantley, J. G., Ekblad, A. G., Lynch, T. R., & Wolever, R. Q. (2015). Decreased symptoms of depression after mindfulness-based stress reduction: potential moderating effects of religiosity, spirituality, trait mindfulness, sex, and age. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21, 166–174. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health well-bring? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12. CrossRefPubMed Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health well-bring? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169–183. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169–183. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Jazaieri, H., Goldin, P. R., Werner, K., Ziv, M., & Gross, J. J. (2012). A randomized trial of MBSR versus aerobic exercise for social anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 715–731. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Jazaieri, H., Goldin, P. R., Werner, K., Ziv, M., & Gross, J. J. (2012). A randomized trial of MBSR versus aerobic exercise for social anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 715–731. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Dell. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Dell.
go back to reference Kabat-Zinn, J. (1993). Mindfulness meditation: health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind and body medicine. New York: Consumer Reports Books. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1993). Mindfulness meditation: health benefits of an ancient Buddhist practice. In D. Goleman & J. Gurin (Eds.), Mind and body medicine. New York: Consumer Reports Books.
go back to reference Kazdin, A. E. (2007). Mediators and moderators of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1–27. Kazdin, A. E. (2007). Mediators and moderators of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1–27.
go back to reference Keng, S., Smoski, M. J., Robins, C. J., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantly, J. G. (2012). Mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based stress reduction: self-compassion and mindfulness as mediators of intervention outcomes. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 26, 270–280. CrossRef Keng, S., Smoski, M. J., Robins, C. J., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantly, J. G. (2012). Mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based stress reduction: self-compassion and mindfulness as mediators of intervention outcomes. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 26, 270–280. CrossRef
go back to reference Khoury, B., Sharma, M., Rush, S. E., & Fournier, C. (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 78, 519–528. CrossRefPubMed Khoury, B., Sharma, M., Rush, S. E., & Fournier, C. (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 78, 519–528. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., Evans, A., Radford, S., Teasdale, J. D., & Dalgleish, T. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behavior Research and Therapy, 48, 1105–1112. CrossRef Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., Evans, A., Radford, S., Teasdale, J. D., & Dalgleish, T. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behavior Research and Therapy, 48, 1105–1112. CrossRef
go back to reference Lakens, D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 863. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Lakens, D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 863. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Skills training manual for treating borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: a meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 545–552. CrossRefPubMed MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: a meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 545–552. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Manual: Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Manual: Profile of Mood States. San Diego: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
go back to reference Montoya, A. K., & Hayes, A. F. (2017). Two-condition within participant statistical mediation analysis: a path-analytic framework. Psychological Methods, 22, 6–27. CrossRefPubMed Montoya, A. K., & Hayes, A. F. (2017). Two-condition within participant statistical mediation analysis: a path-analytic framework. Psychological Methods, 22, 6–27. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Neely, M. E., Schallert, D. L., Mohammed, S. S., Roberts, R. M., & Chen, Y. J. (2009). Self-kindness when facing stress: the role of self-compassion, goal regulation, and support in college students’ well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 88–97. CrossRef Neely, M. E., Schallert, D. L., Mohammed, S. S., Roberts, R. M., & Chen, Y. J. (2009). Self-kindness when facing stress: the role of self-compassion, goal regulation, and support in college students’ well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 88–97. CrossRef
go back to reference Neff, K. D. (2003). Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250. CrossRef Neff, K. D. (2003). Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250. CrossRef
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Dahm, D. A. (2014). Self-compassion—what it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. In M. Robinson, B. Meier, & B. Ostafins (Eds.), Mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 121–137). New York: Springer. Neff, K. D., & Dahm, D. A. (2014). Self-compassion—what it is, what it does, and how it relates to mindfulness. In M. Robinson, B. Meier, & B. Ostafins (Eds.), Mindfulness and self-regulation (pp. 121–137). New York: Springer.
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 28–44. CrossRefPubMed Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 28–44. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Neff, K. D., & Vonk, R. (2009). Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself. Journal of Personality, 77, 23–50. CrossRefPubMed Neff, K. D., & Vonk, R. (2009). Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself. Journal of Personality, 77, 23–50. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 139–154. CrossRef Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 139–154. CrossRef
go back to reference Newsome, S., Waldo, M., & Gruszka, C. (2012). Mindfulness group work: preventing stress and increasing self-compassion among helping professionals in training. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 37, 297–311. CrossRef Newsome, S., Waldo, M., & Gruszka, C. (2012). Mindfulness group work: preventing stress and increasing self-compassion among helping professionals in training. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 37, 297–311. CrossRef
go back to reference Nyklíček, I., & Kuijpers, K. F. (2008). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological well-being and quality of life: is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 331–340. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Nyklíček, I., & Kuijpers, K. F. (2008). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological well-being and quality of life: is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 331–340. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Nyklíček, I., Mommersteeg, P. C., Van Beugen, S., Ramakers, C., & Van Boxtel, G. J. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and physiological activity during acute stress: a randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology, 32, 1110–1113. CrossRefPubMed Nyklíček, I., Mommersteeg, P. C., Van Beugen, S., Ramakers, C., & Van Boxtel, G. J. (2013). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and physiological activity during acute stress: a randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology, 32, 1110–1113. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Piet, J., Wurtzen, H., & Zachariae, R. (2012). The effect of mindfulness based therapy on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 1007–1020. CrossRefPubMed Piet, J., Wurtzen, H., & Zachariae, R. (2012). The effect of mindfulness based therapy on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 1007–1020. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Raab, K. (2014). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20, 95–108. CrossRefPubMed Raab, K. (2014). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and empathy among health care professionals: a review of the literature. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 20, 95–108. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Raab, K., Sogge, K., Parker, N., & Flament, M. F. (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and self-compassion among mental healthcare professionals: a pilot study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 18, 503–512. CrossRef Raab, K., Sogge, K., Parker, N., & Flament, M. F. (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and self-compassion among mental healthcare professionals: a pilot study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 18, 503–512. CrossRef
go back to reference Robins, C. J., Keng, S.-L., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experiences and expression: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 117–131. CrossRefPubMed Robins, C. J., Keng, S.-L., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experiences and expression: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68, 117–131. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rowe, A., Shepstone, L. L. S., Carnelley, K., & Millings, A. K. (2016). Attachment security and self-compassion priming increase the likelihood that first-time engagers in mindfulness meditation will continue with mindfulness training. Mindfulness, 7, 642–650. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Rowe, A., Shepstone, L. L. S., Carnelley, K., & Millings, A. K. (2016). Attachment security and self-compassion priming increase the likelihood that first-time engagers in mindfulness meditation will continue with mindfulness training. Mindfulness, 7, 642–650. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Shapiro, S. L., Astin, J. A., Bishop, S. R., & Cordova, M. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 164–176. CrossRef Shapiro, S. L., Astin, J. A., Bishop, S. R., & Cordova, M. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 164–176. CrossRef
go back to reference Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1, 105–115. CrossRef Shapiro, S. L., Brown, K. W., & Biegel, G. M. (2007). Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1, 105–115. CrossRef
go back to reference Tang, Y. Y., Holzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 213–225. CrossRefPubMed Tang, Y. Y., Holzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16, 213–225. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Thera, N. (2001). The power of mindfulness. Penang: Buddha Dharma Education Association. Thera, N. (2001). The power of mindfulness. Penang: Buddha Dharma Education Association.
Metagegevens
Titel
Self-Compassion Mediates Improvement in Well-being in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program in a Community-Based Sample
Auteurs
Susan Evans
Katarzyna Wyka
Katherine Thorpe Blaha
Elizabeth S. Allen
Publicatiedatum
02-01-2018
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Mindfulness / Uitgave 4/2018
Print ISSN: 1868-8527
Elektronisch ISSN: 1868-8535
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0872-1

Andere artikelen Uitgave 4/2018

Mindfulness 4/2018 Naar de uitgave

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION IN CONSCIOUSNESS

Orthogonal Institutions