Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Parents of children with autism are faced with difficult and unique daily stressors associated with their child’s disorder. The personal characteristics of parents can influence how they approach stressful life events and potentially help them cope with some of the deleterious effects associated with extreme stress. One factor that may be an important coping strategy is self-compassion, which involves being kind to oneself in times of difficulty, recognizing the shared nature of human suffering, and being mindfully aware of negative thoughts and emotions. This study examined the association between self-compassion and well-being in 51 parents of a child with autism using self-report measures. Self-compassion was positively associated with life satisfaction, hope, and goal reengagement and negatively associated with depression and parental stress. Even though child symptom severity is often the strongest predictor of negative adjustment for parents, self-compassion universally predicted parental well-being over and above the effects of child symptom severity. Results suggest that self-compassion may play a significant role in well-being for parents of children with autism. Implications for future research and applications of the construct of self-compassion are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index (3rd ed.). Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resource.
Albertson, E. R., Neff, K. D., & Dill-Shackleford, K. E. (2014). Self-compassion and body dissatisfaction in women: a randomized controlled trial of a brief meditation intervention. Mindfulness, 1–11.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bazzano, A., Wolfe, C., Zylowska, L., Wang, S., Schuster, E., Barrett, C., & Lehrer, D. (2013). Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for parents and caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: a community-based approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1–11.
Beer, M., Ward, L., & Moar, K. (2013). The relationship between mindful parenting and distress in parents of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Mindfulness, 1, 1–11.
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., & … Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bph077.
Brooks, M., Kay-Lambkin, F., Bowman, J., & Childs, S. (2012). Self-compassion amongst clients with problematic alcohol use. Mindfulness, 3(4), 308–317. CrossRef
Cappe, E., Wolff, M., Bobet, R., & Adrien, J. (2011). Quality of life: a key variable to consider in the evaluation of adjustment in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and in the development of relevant support and assistance programmes. Quality of Life Research: An International Journal of Quality of Life Aspects of Treatment, Care & Rehabilitation, 20(8), 1279–1294. CrossRef
Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Greenberg, M. T., & Nix, R. L. (2010). Changing parent’s mindfulness, child management skills and relationship quality with their youth: results from a randomized pilot intervention trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 203–217. PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Conner, C. M., & White, S. W. (2014). Stress in mothers of children with autism: trait mindfulness as a protective factor. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(6), 617–624. CrossRef
Dahm, K. A. (2013). Mindfulness and self-compassion as predictors of functional outcomes and psychopathology in OEF/OIF veterans exposed to trauma. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation) The University of Texas, Austin.
de Bruin, E. I., Zijlstra, B. J., Geurtzen, N., van Zundert, R. M., van de Weijer-Bergsma, E., Hartman, E. E., … & Bögels, S. M. (2014). Mindful parenting assessed further: psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P). Mindfulness, 5(2), 200–212.
Duncan, L. G. (2007). Assessment of mindful parenting among parents of early adolescents: development and validation of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting scale. Unpublished PhD thesis. Pennsylvania State University, US.
Eaves, R. C., Woods-Groves, S., Williams, T. r., & Fall, A. (2006). Reliability and validity of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale and the Gilliam autism rating scale. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41(3), 300–309.
Faso, Neal-Beevers, A., & Carlson, C. L. (2013). Vicarious futurity, hope, and well-being in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(2), 288–297. doi: 10.1016/j.rasd.2012.08.014.
Fernandez, M. C., & Arcia, E. (2004). Disruptive behaviors and maternal responsibility: a complex portrait of stigma, self-blame, and other reactions. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 26, 356e372. CrossRef
Gilliam, J. E. (2006). Gilliam autism rating scale Examiners manual, (second ed.) Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Inc.
Gray, D. (1993). Perceptions of stigma: the parents of autistic children. Sociology of Health & Illness, 15(1), 102–120. CrossRef
Hayes, S. A., & Watson, S. L. (2013). The impact of parenting stress: a meta-analysis of studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(3), 629–642. doi: 10.1007/s10803-012-1604-y. PubMedCrossRef
Herring, S. S., Gray, K. K., Taffe, J. J., Tonge, B. B., Sweeney, D. D., & Einfeld, S. S. (2006). Behaviour and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: associations with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(12), 874–882. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00904.x.
Ingersoll, B., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2011). The relationship between the broader autism phenotype, child severity, and stress and depression in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 337–344. CrossRef
Jones, L., Hastings, R. P., Totsika, V., Keane, L., & Rhule, N. (2014). Child behavior problems and parental well-being in families of children with autism: the mediating role of mindfulness and acceptance. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 119(2), 171–185. PubMedCrossRef
Kashdan, T. B., Pelham, W. E., Lang, A. R., Hoza, B., Jacob, R. G., Jennings, J. R., Blumenthal, J. D., & Gnagy, E. M. (2002). Hope and optimism as human strengths in parents of children with externalizing disorders: stress is in the eye of the beholder. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(4), 441–468. CrossRef
Kemppainen, J. J., Johnson, M. O., Phillips, J. C., Sullivan, K. M., Corless, I. B., Reid, P. P., & … Beamon, E. R. (2013). A multinational study of self-compassion and human immunodeficiency virus-related anxiety. International Nursing Review, 60(4), 477–486. doi: 10.1111/inr.12056.
Lyons, A. M., Leon, S. C., Phelps, C. E. R., & Dunleavy, A. M. (2010). The impact of child symptom severity on stress among parents of children with ASD: the moderating role of coping styles. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 516–524. CrossRef
Magnus, C. M. R., Kowalski, K. C., & McHugh, T. L. F. (2010). The role of self-compassion in women’s self-determined motives to exercise and exercise-related outcomes. Self and Identity, 9, 363–382. CrossRef
Mak, W., & Kwok, Y. (2010). Internalization of stigma for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 2045–2051. CrossRef
Miller, V. A., Schreck, K. A., Mulick, J. A., & Butter, E. (2012). Factors related to parents’ choices of treatments for their children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 87–95. CrossRef
Moreira, H., Gouveia, M. J., Carona, C., Silva, N., & Canavarro, M. C. (2014). Maternal attachment and children’s quality of life: the mediating role of self-compassion and parenting stress. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-0036-z.
Myers, B. J., Mackintosh, V. H., & Goin-Kochel, R. P. (2009). “My greatest joy and my greatest heart ache:” parents’ own words on how having a child in the autism spectrum has affected their lives and their families’ lives. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(3), 670–684. CrossRef
Myers, R. E., Winton, A. S. W., Lancioni, G. E., & Singh, N. N. (2014). Mindfulness meditation in developmental disabilities. In N. N. Singh (Ed.), Psychology of meditation (pp. 209–240). New York: Nova.
Neely, M. E., Schallert, D. L., Mohammed, S. S., Roberts, R. M., & Chen, Y. (2009). Self-kindness when facing stress: the role of self-compassion, goal regulation, and support in college students well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 88–97. CrossRef
Neff, K. D. (2011). Self-compassion: the proven power of being kind to yourself. New York: William Morrow.
Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2013). The relationship between self-compassion and other-focused concern among college undergraduates, community adults, and practicing meditators. Self and Identity, 12(2), 160–176. CrossRef
Neff, K. D., Hseih, Y., & Dejitthirat, K. (2005). Self-compassion, achievement goals, and coping with academic failure. Self and Identity, 4, 263–287. CrossRef
Neff, K. D., Rude, S. S., & Kirkpatrick, K. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 908–916. CrossRef
Neff, K. D., Pisitsungkagarn, K., & Hseih, Y. (2008). Self-compassion and self-construal in the United States, Thailand, and Taiwan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 267–285. CrossRef
Park, J., Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (2002). Impacts of poverty on quality of life in families of children with disabilities. Exceptional Children, 68, 151–170.
Perry, A. (2004). A model of stress in families of children with developmental disabilities: clinical and research applications. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11, 1–16.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Fisher, B. C., Wahler, R. G., McAleavey, K., Singh, J., & Sabaawi, M. (2006). Mindful parenting decreases aggression, noncompliance and self-injury in children with autism. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14, 169–177. CrossRef
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Manikam, R., Winton, A. S., Singh, A. N., Singh, J., & Singh, A. D. (2011). A mindfulness-based strategy for self-management of aggressive behavior in adolescents with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1153–1158. CrossRef
Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S., Karazsia, B. T., Myers, R. E., Latham, L. L., & Singh, J. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Positive Behavior Support (MBPBS) for mothers of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: effects on adolescents’ behavior and parental stress. Mindfulness, 5, 646–657.
Smeets, E., Neff, K., Alberts, H., & Peters, M. (2014). Meeting suffering with kindness: effects of a brief self-compassion intervention for female college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology.
Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585. PubMedCrossRef
Sprangers, M. A. G., & Schwartz, C. E. (1999). Integrating response shift into health-related quality of life research: a theoretical model. Social Science & Medicine, 48, 1507–1515. CrossRef
Stuart, M., & McGrew, J. H. (2009). Caregiver burden after receiving a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 86–97. CrossRef
Van Dam, N. T., Sheppard, S. C., Forsyth, J. P., & Earleywine, M. (2011). Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(1), 123–130. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.011. PubMedCrossRef
Vettese, L. C., Dyer, C. E., Li, W., & Wekerle, C. (2011). Does self-compassion mitigate the association between childhood maltreatment and later emotion regulation difficulties? A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(5), 480–491. doi: 10.1007/s11469-011-9340-7. CrossRef
Zaidman-Zait, A., Mirenda, P., Zumbo, B. D., Georgiades, S., Szatmari, P., Bryson, S., & … Thompson, A. (2011). Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 4(5), 336–346.
- Self-Compassion and Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism
Kristin D. Neff
Daniel J. Faso
- Springer US