Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Several studies have highlighted the adaptive role of self-compassion on human suffering and on a wide range of psychopathological conditions. Extensive research has shown that emotional intelligence has been associated with well-being, mental and physical health and quality of interpersonal relationships. We set out to explore the mediating role of self-compassion and emotional intelligence on the relationship between shame traumatic memories and depressive symptoms, and to explore if these were different between female and male adolescents. The sample was composed of 1101 adolescents from general population, whose age ranged from 14 to 18 years. Participants filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires designed to measure shame traumatic memories, self-compassion, emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms. Correlational analysis showed that in male and female adolescents, shame traumatic memories are associated with more depressive symptoms and with lower levels of self-compassion and emotional intelligence. Multigroup analysis showed that emotional intelligence has a greater impact on depression in female adolescents. Also, the impact of shame traumatic memories on depression is stronger in males, even though females report shame traumatic memories as more impactful. This study provides preliminary evidence that self-compassion and emotional intelligence are important emotion regulation processes for depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Buck, R. (1984). The communication of emotion. New York: Guilford Press.
Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Ciarrochi, J., Blackledge, J., Bilich, L., & Bayliss, V. (2007). Improving emotional intelligence: A guide to mindfulness-based emotional intelligence training. In J. Ciarrochi & J.D. Mayer (Eds), Applying Emotional Intelligence: A Practitioner’s Guide (pp. 89–124). New York: Psychology Press.
Cohen J (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd edn). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cunha, M., Matos, M., Faria, D., & Zagalo, S. (2012). Shame memories and psychopathology in adolescence: The mediator effect of shame. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 12(2), 203–218.
Cunha, M., Xavier, A., Matos, M., & Zagalo, S. (2013, May). The traumatic impact of shame experiences: Study of the psychometric properties of the impact event scale in adolescents (IES-A). Poster session presented at the meeting of the I World Congress of children and youth health behaviors/4th National Congress on Health Education, Viseu, Portugal.
Cunha, M., Xavier, A., & Vitória, I. (2013). Avaliação da auto-compaixão em adolescentes: Adaptação e qualidades psicométricas da Escala de Auto-Compaixão [Assessment of self-compassion in adolescents: Adaptation and psychometric properties of the self-compassion scale]. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychology, 4(2), 95–117.
Depue, R. A., & Morrone-Strupinsky, J. V. (2005). A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(3), 313–350. PubMed
Dinis, A., & Pinto Gouveia, J. (2006). Versão portuguesa do Trait - Meta Mood Scale – TMMS. [unpublished manuscript].
Fernandez-Berrocal, P., Alcaide, R., Extremera, N., & Pizarro, D. (2006). The role of emotional intelligence in anxiety and depression among adolescents. Individual Differences Research, 4(1), 16–27.
Gilbert, P. (1998). What is shame? Some core issues and controversies. In P. Gilbert, & B. Andrews (Eds.), Shame: Interpersonal behavior, psychopathology and culture. New York, NY: Oxford.
Gilbert, P. (2000). The relationship of shame, social anxiety and depression: The role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 7(3), 174–189.
Gilbert, P. (2002). Body shame: A biopsychosocial conceptualisation and overview, with treatment implications. In P. Gilbert, & J. Miles (Eds.), Body shame: Conceptualisation, research and treatment. London: Routledge.
Gilbert, P. (2003). Evolution, social roles and the differences in shame and guilt. Social Research, 70, 1205–1230.
Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion and cruelty: A biopsychosocial approach. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy. London/New York, NY: Routledge.
Gilbert, P. (2007). The evolution of shame as a marker for relationship security: A biopsychosocial approach. In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 283–309). New York, NY: Guilford.
Gilbert, P. (2009) Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 15(3), 199–208. CrossRef
Gilbert, P. (2010). Compassion focused therapy: Distinctive features. London: Routledge.
Gilbert, P., Allan, S., & Goss, K. (1996). Parental representations, shame, interpersonal problems, and vulnerability to psychopathology. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 3(1), 23–24. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199603)3:1<23::AID-CPP66>3.0.CO;2-O. CrossRef
Gilbert, P., & Irons, C. (2009). Shame, self-criticism, and self-compassion in adolescence. In N. B. Allen, & L. B. Sheeber (Eds.), Adolescent emotional development and the emergence of depressive disorders (pp. 195–214). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert, P., & McGuire, M. (1998). Shame, status and social roles: Psychobiology and evolution. In P. Gilbert, & B. Andrews (Eds.), Shame: Interpersonal behavior, psychopathology and culture. New York, NY; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gillath, O., Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2005). An attachmenttheoretical approach to compassion and altruism. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion: Its nature and use in psychotherapy (pp. 121–147). London: Brunner-Routledge.
Goldman, S. L., Mayer, J. D., Palfai, T. P., Salovey, P., & Turvey, C. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the trait meta-mood scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125–154). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Joeng, J. R., & Turner, S. L. (2015). Mediators between self-criticism and depression: Fear of compassion, self-compassion, and importance to others. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(3), 453–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cou0000071.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Convergence of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling. In M. Williams, & W. P. Vogt (Eds.), Handbook of methodological innovation in social research methods (pp. 562–589). London: Sage. CrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1985). The children’s depression inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 995–998. PubMed
LeDoux, J. E. (1996). The emotional brain. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
MacPhee, A. R., & Andrews, J. J. W. (2006). Risk factors for depression in early adolescence. Adolescence, 41, 435–466. PubMed
Maroco, J. (2010). Análise estatística: com utilização do SPSS (3rd ed.). Lisboa: Edições Sílabo, Lda.
Marujo, H. (1994). Síndromas depressivos na infância e na adolescência (doctoral dissertation), University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Mayer, J., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence?. In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3–31). New York, NY: Basic Books.
Mehr, K. E., & Adams, A. C. (2016). Self-compassion as a mediator of maladaptive perfectionism and depressive symptoms in college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 30(2), 132–145. CrossRef
Mikolajczak, M., Nélis, D., Hansenne, M., & Quoidbach, J. (2008). If you can regulate sadness, you can probably regulate shame: Associations between trait emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and coping efficiency across discrete emotions. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1356–1368. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.12.004. CrossRef
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York, NY: Guilford.
Potter, R. F., Yar, K., Francis, A. P., & Schuster, S. (2014). Self-compassion mediates the relationship between parental criticism and social anxiety. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 14(1), 33–43.
Raes, F. (2011). The effect of self-compassion on the development of depression symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Mindfulness, 2(1), 33–36. CrossRef
Ruiz-Aranda, D., Castillo, R., Salguero, J. M., Cabello, R., Fernández-Berrocal, P., & Balluerka, N. (2012). Short-and midterm effects of emotional intelligence training on adolescent mental health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(5), 462–467. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.003. CrossRefPubMed
Schore, A. N. (1998). Early shame experiences and infant brain development. In P. Gilbert, & B. Andrews (Eds.), Shame: Interpersonal behavior: Psychopathology and culture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2007). Adult attachment strategies and the regulation of emotion. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 446–465). New York, NY: Guilford.
Sloman, L., & Gilbert, P. (2000). Subordination and defeat: An evolutionary approach to mood disorders and their therapy. New York, NY: Psychology.
Smith, M., & Walden, T. (1999). Understanding feelings and coping with emotional situations: A comparison of maltreated and nonmaltreated preschoolers. Social Development, 8(1), 93–116. CrossRef
Teleb, A. A., & Al Awamleh, A. A. (2013). The relationship between self compassion and emotional intelligence for university students. Current Research in Psychology, 4(2), 20. CrossRef
Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The impact of event scale-revised. In J. P. Wilson, & T. M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD: A practitioner’s handbook (pp. 399–411). New York, NY: Guilford.
- Self-Compassion and Emotional Intelligence in Adolescence: A Multigroup Mediational Study of the Impact of Shame Memories on Depressive Symptoms
Sérgio A. Carvalho
- Springer US