Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by early onset qualitative impairments in reciprocal social development. However, whether individuals with ASD exhibit impaired recognition of facial expressions corresponding to basic emotions is debatable. To investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, we asked 14 children diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA)/AS and 17 typically developing peers to complete a new highly sensitive test of facial emotion recognition. The test stimuli comprised faces expressing increasing degrees of emotional intensity that slowly changed from a neutral to a full-intensity happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, or fear expression. We assessed individual differences in the intensity of stimuli required to make accurate judgments about emotional expressions. We found that, different emotions had different identification thresholds and the two groups were generally similar in terms of the sequence of discrimination threshold of six basic expressions. It was easier for individuals in both groups to identify emotions that were relatively fully expressed (e.g., intensity > 50%). Compared with control participants, children with ASD generally required stimuli with significantly greater intensity for the correct identification of anger, disgust, and fear expressions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD do not have a general but rather a selective impairment in basic emotion recognition.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association (APA). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. CrossRef
Bormann-Kischkel, C., Vilsmeier, M., & Baude, B. (1995). The development of emotional concepts in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36(7), 1243–1259. CrossRef
Brainard, D. H. (1997). The psychophysics toolbox. Spatial Vision, 10, 443–446. CrossRef
De Schonen, S., & Mathivet, E. (1989). First come, first served: A scenario about the development of hemispheric specialization in face recognition during infancy. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 9(1), 3–44.
Ekman, P. (1972). Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In J. Cole (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1971. New York: Academic Press.
Ekman, P., Friesan, W., & Ellsworth, P. (1972). Emotion in the human face: Guidelines for research and an integration of findings. New York: Pergamon Press.
Ekman, P., & Friesan, W. V. (1969). The repertoire of nonverbal behaviour: Categories, origins, usage, and coding. Semiotica, 1, 49–98. CrossRef
Ekman, P., & Rosenberg, E. L. (1997). What the face reveals: Basic and applied studies of spontaneous expression using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Enticott, P. G., Kennedy, H. A., Johnston, P. J., Rinehart, N. J., Tonge, B. J., Taffe, J. R., et al. (2013). Emotion recognition of static and dynamic faces in autism spectrum disorder. Cognition & Emotion, 28(6), 1110–1118. CrossRef
Griffiths, S., Jarrold, C., Pentonvoak, I. S., Woods, A. T., Skinner, A. L., & Munafò, M. R. (2017). Impaired recognition of basic emotions from facial expressions in young people with autism spectrum disorder: Assessing the importance of expression intensity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–11.
Niedenthal, P. M., Halberstadt, J. B., Margolin, J., & Innes-Ker, ÅH. (2000). Emotional state and the detection of change in facial expression of emotion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 211–222. CrossRef
Pan, N., Wu, G. H., Zhang, L., Zhao, Y. F., Guan, H., Xu, C. J., et al. (2017). Association between intelligence development and facial expression recognition ability in children with autism spectrum disorder. Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 19(3), 275. PubMed
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1992). Standard progressive matrices. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press.
Robel, L., Ennouri, K., Piana, H. N., Vaivre-Douret, L., Perier, A., Flament, M. F., Mouren-Siméoni, M. C. (2004). Discrimination of face identities and expressions in children with autism: Same or different? European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(4), 227–233. CrossRef
Smith, M. J. L., Montagne, B., Perrett, D. I., Gill, M., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities. Neuropsychologia, 48(9), 2777–2781. CrossRef
Tell, D., Davidson, D., & Camras, L. A. (2014). Recognition of emotion from facial expressions with direct or averted eye gaze and varying expression intensities in children with autism disorder and typically developing children. Autism Research and Treat, 2014(9), 816137.
Wallace, G. L., Case, L. K., Harms, M. B., Silvers, J. A., Kenworthy, L., & Martin, A. (2011). Diminished sensitivity to sad facial expressions in high functioning autism spectrum disorders is associated with symptomatology and adaptive functioning. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(11), 1475–1486. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Walsh, J. A., Vida, M. D., & Rutherford, M. D. (2013). Strategies for perceiving facial expressions in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(5), 1018–1026. CrossRef
Whitaker, L. R., Simpson, A., & Roberson, D. (2017). Brief report: Is impaired classification of subtle facial expressions in children with autism spectrum disorders related to atypical emotion category boundaries?. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1–7.
Williams, J., Scott, F., Stott, C., Allison, C., Bolton, P., Baron-Cohen., et al. (2015). The cast (childhood asperger syndrome test): Test accuracy. Autism the International Journal of Research & Practice, 11(2), 173–185.
Wingenbach, T. S. H., Ashwin, C., & Brosnan, M. (2017). Diminished sensitivity and specificity at recognising facial emotional expressions of varying intensity underlie emotion-specific recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 34, 52–61. CrossRef
- Selective Impairment of Basic Emotion Recognition in People with Autism: Discrimination Thresholds for Recognition of Facial Expressions of Varying Intensities
- Springer US