There has been great interest of late in trying to capture the benefits of meditation by scanning meditators’ brains. In this paper, we argue that a successful neuroscience of mindfulness needs to be based on an adequate psychological analysis. We present a definition of mindfulness based on four psychological processes that are relatively well understood, and we show how this model may help organize neuroimaging research and create a bridge to clinical applications. This framework provides an approach to neuroscience research grounded in psychological principles and theory. We propose that this is critical for advancing scientific endeavors such that the knowledge gained helps improve the human condition.