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07-10-2022 | Original Article

Schema-Driven Involuntary Categoric Memory in Depression

Auteurs: Noboru Matsumoto, Lynn Ann Watson, Kei Kuratomi

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 1/2023

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Abstract

Background

Overgeneral categoric memory is known as a vulnerability factor for depression, yet increased retrieval of categoric memories among depressed individuals has been observed in voluntary but not involuntary retrieval tasks. Here we propose that, increased categoric memory occurs during involuntary memory tasks when cued by schema-related stimuli, which tend to activate dysfunctional and negative self-schema in depression.

Methods

A vigilance task measuring involuntary memory was administered to 27 dysphoric, 26 past depressed, and 27 healthy control participants. Participants also responded to several questions measuring each memory characteristic (e.g., evoked emotion) and a dysfunctional schema scale.

Results

Results supported the hypothesis that dysphoric and past depressed groups reported more involuntary categoric memories for schema-related (particularly negative) stimuli relative to a healthy control group. Dysfunctional schema score was positively correlated with the number of involuntary categoric memories retrieved following schema-related negative stimuli. Involuntary categoric memory for schema-related stimuli was related to negative evoked emotion, and dysphoric participants experienced more negative emotion in response to positive stimuli.

Discussion and Conclusion

These findings suggest that schema-based involuntary categoric memory may be vulnerable to the persistence and relapse of depression.
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Voetnoten
1
In a supplementary file, we noted the results of linear mixed model for evoked emotion as a reference for readers.
 
2
There was an observable group difference in the number of specific memories in the schema-unrelated condition. However, a two-way ANOVA failed to detect any significant group differences. While additional analyses of group differences in specific memory in the schema-unrelated condition were also nonsignificant moderate effect sizes were observed between the dysphoric and control group (Ms = 6.33 vs. 2.93, p = .09, d = 0.65) and remitted MDE group and control group (Ms = 5.39 vs. 2.93, p = .24, d = 0.47). In addition, self-reflections of some participants in the dysphoric and past MDE groups reported that they could not ignore the sentences and thus images and thoughts popped into mind. These findings potentially support the lack of cognitive inhibition hypothesis of involuntary memory (Barzykowski et al., 2019a, 2019b), which is worthy of further exploration.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Schema-Driven Involuntary Categoric Memory in Depression
Auteurs
Noboru Matsumoto
Lynn Ann Watson
Kei Kuratomi
Publicatiedatum
07-10-2022
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 1/2023
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-022-10329-6

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