Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2008

01-08-2008 | Original Article

Rumination and Vegetative Symptoms: A Test of the Dual Vulnerability Model of Seasonal Depression

Auteurs: Michael A. Young, Annemarie Reardon, Omar Azam

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 4/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The Dual Vulnerability Model of seasonal affective disorder proposes that the cognitive-affective symptoms of seasonal depression are the result of an interaction of a diathesis of cognitive vulnerability to depression and the stressor of seasonal vegetative change. Two studies examined this hypothesis employing a within-subject design with daily data on vegetative and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms. Study 1 included a subclinical sample and a trait measure of ruminative response style. Study 2 included a clinical sample and reports of actual ruminative thoughts and behaviors in response to fatigue. Results of mixed linear model analyses in both studies supported the hypothesis that rumination moderates the relationship between the vegetative symptoms and the cognitive-affective symptoms of seasonal depression. The extension of the model to other subtypes of depression is considered.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
The effect of vegetative symptoms was modeled as a random effect, consistent with our hypothesis that their impact on cognitive-affective symptoms varies from person to person. Moderating variables terms were modeled as fixed effects. Maximum likelihood estimation was used so that the fits of the models with different fixed effects could be compared. The statistical significance of fixed effects was assessed by a t-test based on the estimate and its standard error. The statistical significance of the standard deviation of random effect variables was assessed by comparing the fit of the model to the model with the effect fixed (Pinheiro and Bates 2004).
 
2
In both studies, all dependent and independent variables were examined for being approximately normally distributed. This was the case, except for the positively skewed cognitive-affective variable in study 1, which, therefore, was log-transformed. Time-varying independent variables were person centered; those that varied only across persons were grand mean centered. In both studies visual inspection of graphs of the dependent cognitive-affective variable suggested that linear and quadratic general trends over time, both varying from person to person (i.e., as random effects), should be accounted for. In both studies, models with these terms significantly improved model fit. Next, a first-order autoregressive error structure was added. In both studies this addition also significantly improved model fit (autocorrelation ranged from .224 to .296 across all the models reported). Consequently, all subsequent models representing our hypotheses included these effects and served as the base models for assessing further improvements in model fit. For simplicity of presentation, these terms are not shown in the equation above or reported further in the Results. Details are available from the authors.
 
3
For ease of presentation, in Study 1 coefficients and standard errors have been multiplied by 1000.
 
4
Models were fit regressing rumination-to-mood on rumination-to-fatigue and vice versa, including, as before, linear and quadratic time effects and autocorrelated errors. The within-subject correlations were computed based on the reduction in variance from models without the independent variable. The value reported is the mean of the two values obtained, .4306 and .4023.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 359–372. CrossRef Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 359–372. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53–63. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53–63.
go back to reference Blodgett, C. J., Reardon, A., & Young, M. A. (2001). Rumination as a mediator of the relationship between neuroticism and both seasonality and depression. In Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Madison, WI. Blodgett, C. J., Reardon, A., & Young, M. A. (2001). Rumination as a mediator of the relationship between neuroticism and both seasonality and depression. In Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Madison, WI.
go back to reference Bryk, A., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park: Sage. Bryk, A., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models. Newbury Park: Sage.
go back to reference Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
go back to reference Eastman, C. I., Young, M. A., & Fogg, L. F. (1998). Bright light treatment of winter depression, a placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 883–889. PubMedCrossRef Eastman, C. I., Young, M. A., & Fogg, L. F. (1998). Bright light treatment of winter depression, a placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 883–889. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844. PubMed Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844. PubMed
go back to reference Enggasser, J., & Young, M. A. (2007). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in seasonal affective disorder: Predicting mood and cognitive symptoms in individuals with seasonal vegetative changes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 3–21. CrossRef Enggasser, J., & Young, M. A. (2007). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in seasonal affective disorder: Predicting mood and cognitive symptoms in individuals with seasonal vegetative changes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31, 3–21. CrossRef
go back to reference Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1964). An improved short questionnaire for the measurement of extraversion and neuroticism. Life Sciences, 3, 1103–1109. PubMedCrossRef Eysenck, S. B. G., & Eysenck, H. J. (1964). An improved short questionnaire for the measurement of extraversion and neuroticism. Life Sciences, 3, 1103–1109. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hardin, T. A., Wehr, T. A., Brewerton, T., Kasper, S., Berrettini, W., Rabkin, J., et al. (1991). Evaluation of seasonality in six clinical populations and two normal populations. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 25, 755–787. CrossRef Hardin, T. A., Wehr, T. A., Brewerton, T., Kasper, S., Berrettini, W., Rabkin, J., et al. (1991). Evaluation of seasonality in six clinical populations and two normal populations. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 25, 755–787. CrossRef
go back to reference Insightful Corporation. (2003). S-Plus 6.2 for windows. Seattle: Insightful Corporation. Insightful Corporation. (2003). S-Plus 6.2 for windows. Seattle: Insightful Corporation.
go back to reference Jang, K. L., Lam, R. W., Harris, J. A., Vernon, P. A., & Livesley, W. J. (1998). Seasonal mood change and personality: An investigation of genetic comorbidity. Psychiatry Research, 78, 1–7. PubMedCrossRef Jang, K. L., Lam, R. W., Harris, J. A., Vernon, P. A., & Livesley, W. J. (1998). Seasonal mood change and personality: An investigation of genetic comorbidity. Psychiatry Research, 78, 1–7. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kane, A., & Lowis, M. J. (1999). Seasonal affective disorder and personality, age, and gender. South African Journal of Psychology, 29, 124–127. Kane, A., & Lowis, M. J. (1999). Seasonal affective disorder and personality, age, and gender. South African Journal of Psychology, 29, 124–127.
go back to reference Kasper, S., Wehr, T. A., Bartko, J. J., Gaist, P. A., & Rosenthal, N. E. (1989). Epidemiological changes in mood and behavior: A telephone survey of Montgomery County, Maryland. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 823–833. PubMed Kasper, S., Wehr, T. A., Bartko, J. J., Gaist, P. A., & Rosenthal, N. E. (1989). Epidemiological changes in mood and behavior: A telephone survey of Montgomery County, Maryland. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 823–833. PubMed
go back to reference Madden, P. A., Heath, A. C., Rosenthal, N. E., & Martin, N. G. (1996). Seasonal changes in mood and behavior: The role of genetic factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 47–55. PubMed Madden, P. A., Heath, A. C., Rosenthal, N. E., & Martin, N. G. (1996). Seasonal changes in mood and behavior: The role of genetic factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 47–55. PubMed
go back to reference McCarthy, E., Tarrier, N., & Gregg, L. (2002). The nature and timing of seasonal affective symptoms and the influence of self-esteem and social support: A longitudinal prospective study. Psychological Medicine, 32, 1425–1434. PubMedCrossRef McCarthy, E., Tarrier, N., & Gregg, L. (2002). The nature and timing of seasonal affective symptoms and the influence of self-esteem and social support: A longitudinal prospective study. Psychological Medicine, 32, 1425–1434. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Murray, G., Allen, N. B., & Trinder, J. (2001). A longitudinal investigation of seasonal variation in mood. Chronobiology International, 18, 875–891. PubMedCrossRef Murray, G., Allen, N. B., & Trinder, J. (2001). A longitudinal investigation of seasonal variation in mood. Chronobiology International, 18, 875–891. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Murray, G. W., Hay, D. A., & Armstrong, S. M. (1995). Personality factors in seasonal affective disorder: Is seasonality an aspect of neuroticism? Personality & Individual Differences, 19, 613–617. CrossRef Murray, G. W., Hay, D. A., & Armstrong, S. M. (1995). Personality factors in seasonal affective disorder: Is seasonality an aspect of neuroticism? Personality & Individual Differences, 19, 613–617. CrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 20–28. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 20–28. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 92–104. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 92–104. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Pinheiro, J. C., & Bates, D. M. (2004). Mixed-effects models in S and S-plus. New York: Springer. Pinheiro, J. C., & Bates, D. M. (2004). Mixed-effects models in S and S-plus. New York: Springer.
go back to reference Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1998) Ruminative response style and vulnerability to episodes of dysphoria: Gender, neuroticism, and episode duration. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 22, 401–423. CrossRef Roberts, J. E., Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1998) Ruminative response style and vulnerability to episodes of dysphoria: Gender, neuroticism, and episode duration. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 22, 401–423. CrossRef
go back to reference Rohan, K. J., Roecklein, K. A., Tierney Lindsey, K., Johnson, L. G., Lippy, R. D., Lacy, T. M., & Barton, F. B. (2007). A randomized controlled clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, and their combination for seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 489–500. PubMedCrossRef Rohan, K. J., Roecklein, K. A., Tierney Lindsey, K., Johnson, L. G., Lippy, R. D., Lacy, T. M., & Barton, F. B. (2007). A randomized controlled clinical trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, and their combination for seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 489–500. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Rohan, K. J., Sigmon, S. T., & Dorhofer, D. M. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral factors in seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 71, 22–30. CrossRef Rohan, K. J., Sigmon, S. T., & Dorhofer, D. M. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral factors in seasonal affective disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 71, 22–30. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenthal, N. E., Gerhardt, M., Sack, D. A., Skewrer, R. G., & Wehr, T. A. (1987). Seasonal affective disorder: Relevance for treatment and research in bullimia. In J. I. Hudson & H. G. Pie (Eds.), Psychobiology of bulimia. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Rosenthal, N. E., Gerhardt, M., Sack, D. A., Skewrer, R. G., & Wehr, T. A. (1987). Seasonal affective disorder: Relevance for treatment and research in bullimia. In J. I. Hudson & H. G. Pie (Eds.), Psychobiology of bulimia. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Rosenthal, N. E., Sack, D. A., Gillin, J. C., Lewy, A. J., Goodwin, F. K., Davenport, Y., et al. (1984). Seasonal affective disorder: A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 72–80. PubMed Rosenthal, N. E., Sack, D. A., Gillin, J. C., Lewy, A. J., Goodwin, F. K., Davenport, Y., et al. (1984). Seasonal affective disorder: A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 72–80. PubMed
go back to reference Schmitt, L., & Young, M. A. (2000). Clustering of symptoms across the offset of seasonal affective disorder. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Evanston, IL. Schmitt, L., & Young, M. A. (2000). Clustering of symptoms across the offset of seasonal affective disorder. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Evanston, IL.
go back to reference Spasojevic, J., & Alloy, L. B. (2001). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion, 1, 25-37. PubMedCrossRef Spasojevic, J., & Alloy, L. B. (2001). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion, 1, 25-37. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Teasdale, J. D. (1985). Psychological treatments for depression: How do they work. Behavioural Research and Therapy, 23, 157–165. CrossRef Teasdale, J. D. (1985). Psychological treatments for depression: How do they work. Behavioural Research and Therapy, 23, 157–165. CrossRef
go back to reference White, T. M., & Terman, M. T. (2004). The global seasonality score reconsidered: Convergence on diagnosis of winter depression. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Toronto. White, T. M., & Terman, M. T. (2004). The global seasonality score reconsidered: Convergence on diagnosis of winter depression. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms, Toronto.
go back to reference Williams, J. B. W., Link, M. J., Rosenthal, N. E., Amira, L., & Terman, M. (1992). Structured interview guide for the hamilton depression rating scales – seasonal affective disorder version (SIGH-SAD). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute. Williams, J. B. W., Link, M. J., Rosenthal, N. E., Amira, L., & Terman, M. (1992). Structured interview guide for the hamilton depression rating scales – seasonal affective disorder version (SIGH-SAD). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.
go back to reference Young, M. A., & Azam, O. (2003). Ruminative response style and the severity of seasonal affective disorder. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 27, 223–232. CrossRef Young, M. A., & Azam, O. (2003). Ruminative response style and the severity of seasonal affective disorder. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 27, 223–232. CrossRef
go back to reference Young, M. A., Blodgett, C., & Reardon, A. (2003). Measuring seasonality: Psychometric properties of the SPAQ and ISV. Psychiatry Research, 117, 75–83. PubMedCrossRef Young, M. A., Blodgett, C., & Reardon, A. (2003). Measuring seasonality: Psychometric properties of the SPAQ and ISV. Psychiatry Research, 117, 75–83. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Young, M. A., Meaden, P. M., Fogg, L. F., Cherin, E. A., & Eastman, C. I. (1997). Which environmental variables are related to the onset of seasonal affective disorder? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 554–562. PubMedCrossRef Young, M. A., Meaden, P. M., Fogg, L. F., Cherin, E. A., & Eastman, C. I. (1997). Which environmental variables are related to the onset of seasonal affective disorder? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 554–562. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Young, M. A., Watel, L. G., Lahmeyer, H. W., & Eastman, C. I. (1991). The temporal onset of individual symptoms in winter depression: Differentiating underlying mechanisms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 22, 191–197. PubMedCrossRef Young, M. A., Watel, L. G., Lahmeyer, H. W., & Eastman, C. I. (1991). The temporal onset of individual symptoms in winter depression: Differentiating underlying mechanisms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 22, 191–197. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Rumination and Vegetative Symptoms: A Test of the Dual Vulnerability Model of Seasonal Depression
Auteurs
Michael A. Young
Annemarie Reardon
Omar Azam
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 4/2008
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-008-9184-z