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Gepubliceerd in: Netherlands Heart Journal 4/2021

Open Access 18-02-2021 | Letter to the Editor

Routine measurement of oesophageal temperature during cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation

Auteurs: H. F. Groenveld, B. A. Mulder, Y. Blaauw

Gepubliceerd in: Netherlands Heart Journal | Uitgave 4/2021

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Dear Editor,
With great interest, we read the recent article by Molenaar et al., in which they presented data on measurement of oesophageal temperatures during pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using the second-generation cryoballoon [1]. Molenaar et al. included 204 consecutive patients who underwent PVI. Low oesophageal temperature—defined as < 20 °C—was observed in 26% of the patients. A close proximity between the oesophagus and the pulmonary vein was associated with low temperatures. No endoscopic evaluation of development of oesophageal lesions was performed. The authors suggested to routinely use oesophageal temperature measurements during cryoballoon PVI.
Monitoring of the endoluminal oesophageal temperature during atrial fibrillation ablation is performed with the intention to prevent major complications, such as atrio-oesophageal fistula (AOF) or gastroparesis. One of the most feared complications of PVI is the development of AOF. In a recent user-reported survey composed of 500,000 PVIs performed with a cryoballoon, the reported incidence of AOF was 0.004% [2]. Although extremely rare, the related mortality is high (68.8%) [2]. Considering the low incidence, it is challenging to identify risk factors that predict the development of AOF during cryoballoon PVI [3]. The anatomical close proximity of the oesophagus to the vein makes it vulnerable to low temperatures and subsequent oesophageal ulceration during PVI [3]. In patients who were admitted with AOF, most of these fistulas were located near the left inferior pulmonary vein. It was also observed that during cryoballoon PVI, nadir temperature appeared to be of no significant influence; however, longer inflation times did have a significant effect [3].
Measurement of the oesophageal temperature is a controversial subject. In a previous study, patients underwent endoscopy for detection of oesophageal injury following cryoballoon ablation [4]. Oesophageal temperature monitoring showed that lower temperatures were associated with a higher incidence of and more severe oesophageal lesions. However, these lesions were asymptomatic and disappeared within two weeks after ablation [4], which is likely to occur in many patients who undergo atrial fibrillation ablation. Since the lesions have no clinical consequences, it is questionable whether it is necessary to prevent them.
Still, one may argue that these lesions are a precursor of potential AOF and that oesophageal temperature monitoring can prevent this, although there are currently no data available to support this. A previous meta-analysis (including radiofrequency ablation studies) showed that measurement of temperature does not prevent oesophageal lesions [5]. In addition, in a recent trial, patients were randomised to radiofrequency catheter PVI plus oesophageal temperature monitoring versus PVI without monitoring. There was no difference in endoscopically diagnosed oesophageal lesions between the two groups [6]. Considering the higher incidence of oesophageal lesions and AOF (1:1500) when using radiofrequency, a significant difference in oesophageal lesions during cryoballoon PVI with or without monitoring is even less likely [5].
In our opinion, a low oesophageal temperature observed is a surrogate endpoint without proven clinical significance. The currently available research does provide evidence that oesophageal temperature monitoring during PVI cannot prevent oesophageal injury nor AOF. In addition, given the substantial costs of these temperature probes and the very low incidence of these severe complications, we believe that they cannot be recommended for routine use, until the available evidence shows otherwise.

Conflict of interest

H.F. Groenveld, B.A. Mulder and Y. Blaauw declare that they have no competing interests.
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​.
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Literatuur
1.
go back to reference Molenaar MMD, Hesselink T, Scholten MF, et al. High incidence of (ultra)low oesophageal temperatures during cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation. Neth Heart J. 2020;28:662–9. CrossRef Molenaar MMD, Hesselink T, Scholten MF, et al. High incidence of (ultra)low oesophageal temperatures during cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation. Neth Heart J. 2020;28:662–9. CrossRef
2.
go back to reference Piccini JP, Kreagelmann KM, Simma A, et al. Risk of atrioesophageal fistula with cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart rhythm O2. 2020;1:173–9. CrossRef Piccini JP, Kreagelmann KM, Simma A, et al. Risk of atrioesophageal fistula with cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart rhythm O2. 2020;1:173–9. CrossRef
3.
go back to reference John RM, Kapur S, Ellenbogen KA, Koneru JN. Atrioesophageal fistula formation with cryoballoon ablation is most commonly related to the left inferior pulmonary vein. Heart Rhythm. 2017;14:184–9. CrossRef John RM, Kapur S, Ellenbogen KA, Koneru JN. Atrioesophageal fistula formation with cryoballoon ablation is most commonly related to the left inferior pulmonary vein. Heart Rhythm. 2017;14:184–9. CrossRef
4.
go back to reference Fürnkranz A, Bordignon S, Schmidt B, et al. Luminal esophageal temperature predicts esophageal lesions after second-generation cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation. Heart Rhythm. 2013;10:789–93. CrossRef Fürnkranz A, Bordignon S, Schmidt B, et al. Luminal esophageal temperature predicts esophageal lesions after second-generation cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation. Heart Rhythm. 2013;10:789–93. CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Ha FJ, Han HC, Sanders P, et al. Prevalence and prevention of oesophageal injury during atrial fibrillation ablation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Europace. 2019;21:80–90. CrossRef Ha FJ, Han HC, Sanders P, et al. Prevalence and prevention of oesophageal injury during atrial fibrillation ablation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Europace. 2019;21:80–90. CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Schoene K, Arya A, Grashoff F, et al. Oesophageal probe evaluation in radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation (OPERA): results from a prospective randomized trial. Europace. 2020;22:1487–94. CrossRef Schoene K, Arya A, Grashoff F, et al. Oesophageal probe evaluation in radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation (OPERA): results from a prospective randomized trial. Europace. 2020;22:1487–94. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Routine measurement of oesophageal temperature during cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation
Auteurs
H. F. Groenveld
B. A. Mulder
Y. Blaauw
Publicatiedatum
18-02-2021
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Netherlands Heart Journal / Uitgave 4/2021
Print ISSN: 1568-5888
Elektronisch ISSN: 1876-6250
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12471-021-01551-0

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