09-06-2021 | Original Article
Road-Crossing Behavior in Complex Traffic Situations: A Comparison of Children With and Without ADHD
Gepubliceerd in: Child Psychiatry & Human Development | Uitgave 6/2022Log in om toegang te krijgen
All children are vulnerable to pedestrian injuries, but previous research suggests children diagnosed with ADHD may have elevated risk. Child pedestrian injury risk also increases with increasing traffic volume and speed. The current study examined three hypotheses: (a) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is riskier than that of typically-developing children; (b) Children’s pedestrian behavior is riskier with increased traffic complexity; and (c) Pedestrian behavior of children with ADHD is influenced more by complex traffic situations than behavior of typically-developing children. A sample of 38 children ages 8–12 years, 45% diagnosed with ADHD, completed 21 virtual street-crossings, 7 in each of three levels of traffic complexity. Outcome measures included unsafe crossings, ratio of looking at traffic by time, start-delay to enter the road, time to contact with oncoming vehicles, and time waiting to cross. A repeated measure MANOVA and follow-up tests showed that all children had more unsafe crossings, shorter start-delays and shorter TTCs when exposed to increased traffic complexity compared to lighter traffic. Children with ADHD had more unsafe crossings than typically-developing children. Further, compared to typically-developing children, ADHD children had comparatively more unsafe crossings, lower time to contact and longer wait-time in more complex traffic environments. Executive function deficits among children with ADHD likely influence their behavior in complex traffic environments. Implications of the results for policy-making and preventive strategies are discussed.