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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 2/2016

14-04-2015

Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors

Auteurs: Lauren D. Gulley, Benjamin L. Hankin, Jami F. Young

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 2/2016

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Abstract

Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56 % female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms.
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Our decision to not include positive affectivity was motivated by our theoretical model of how affective reactivity, regulation, and stress work together to confer risk for depression and anxiety. In our model, stressors trigger negative emotional distress among individuals who are high on temperamental negative affectivity. Positive affectivity, on the other hand, does not reflect a tendency to experience negative emotional distress in the face of stress (for a discussion, see Brown and Rosellini 2011). Therefore, although positive affectivity is a temperamental trait unique to depression, and not anxiety, we ultimately decided to omit it from the current study because it was inconsistent with the particular theoretical model we were testing.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Risk for Depression and Anxiety in Youth: The Interaction between Negative Affectivity, Effortful Control, and Stressors
Auteurs
Lauren D. Gulley
Benjamin L. Hankin
Jami F. Young
Publicatiedatum
14-04-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 2/2016
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-9997-7