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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2017

12-07-2016 | Empirical Research

Risk and Outcomes: Are Adolescents Charged with Sex Offenses Different from Other Adolescent Offenders?

Auteurs: Amanda M. Fanniff, Carol A. Schubert, Edward P. Mulvey, Anne-Marie R. Iselin, Alex R. Piquero

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 7/2017

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Abstract

Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses are subject to specialized treatment and policies based on their assumed unique dangerousness, despite contradictory evidence. Limited information is available regarding risk factors and their relationships to outcomes in this population. The comparative frequency and predictive utility of empirically supported risk factors for general delinquency were examined using data from the Pathways to Desistance study. Adolescent males who committed sexual offenses (n = 127) were compared to adolescent males who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 1021). At the start of the study, the sample ranged in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.00, SD = 1.12) and self-identified as primarily African American (44 %), Latino (29 %), or White (25 %). Outcomes were measured over 7 years and included general and sexual recidivism, involvement in school and work, and positive relationships with peers and adults. The results indicated a few small differences in the presence of risk factors and their relationship to outcomes, with many similarities. Juveniles who have committed sexual offenses had equivalent general recidivism but higher sexual recidivism, though this rate was low (7.87 %, or 10 of the 127 adolescents who had committed sexual offenses). New clinical and policy approaches may be needed given the similarities between groups.
Voetnoten
1
Given the small sample size and potential heterogeneity within the “other” group, analyses using race/ethnicity excluded this group.
 
2
The decision to estimate separate models for static and dynamic risk factors is in line with much of the empirically-based developmental/life-course criminology research (see review in Ttofi et al. 2016 and accompanying articles in the special issues of Journal of Criminal Justice on risk and protective factors) as well as sex offender risk assessment (McGrath et al. 2011). In short, by assessing the effect of static factors first and dynamic factors secondarily, researchers may be able to better assess the independent contributions of the dynamic, theoretically-based variables when they are introduced into the models in lieu of the static, largely unmodifiable variables (e.g., Piquero et al. 2015).
 
3
For exploratory purposes, the adolescents who had committed sexual offenses were split into two subgroups based on type of sex offense charge. Given that the policies to which these youth are subject are sometimes based on charges, those with a “violent sex offense” (e.g., rape, sexual assault, aggravated sexual assault, aggravated indecent assault; n = 66) and those with a “sexual abuse” offense (e.g., molestation, indecent exposure, sexual abuse, sexual conduct with a minor, involuntary deviant sexual intercourse; n = 61) were compared to the same group of non-sex offending delinquents (n = 1021) described above. These three groups were not significantly different in age at the time of the baseline interview, but they were different in ethnic/racial composition (Black juveniles over-represented in the Violent group). Adolescents with violent sex offense charges and those with sexual abuse charges did not significantly differ on any risk/need indicator nor any measure of recidivism. Those with violent charges had lower levels of gainful activity and higher levels of positive relationships. Full results on this subgroup comparison are available from the authors.
 
4
No participants self-reported attempted or completed forced sex on the SRO during the follow-up period.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Risk and Outcomes: Are Adolescents Charged with Sex Offenses Different from Other Adolescent Offenders?
Auteurs
Amanda M. Fanniff
Carol A. Schubert
Edward P. Mulvey
Anne-Marie R. Iselin
Alex R. Piquero
Publicatiedatum
12-07-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 7/2017
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0536-9