Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2008

01-08-2008 | Original Article

Responses to Positive Affect: A Self-Report Measure of Rumination and Dampening

Auteurs: Greg C. Feldman, Jutta Joormann, Sheri L. Johnson

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 4/2008

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Rumination in response to dysphoric moods has been linked to the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms; however, responses to positive moods have received less attention despite the theoretical roles of both positive and negative affect in mood disorders. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report measure of ruminative and dampening Responses to Positive Affect (RPA), which we called the RPA Questionnaire. In two psychometric studies, the three subscales of the RPA (Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination) demonstrated acceptable structural validity, internal consistency, and preliminary evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of self-esteem, depressive rumination, and depressive and manic symptoms among undergraduates. The present results suggest that future research on mood disorders would benefit from measuring responses to both negative and positive moods.
Literatuur
go back to reference Altman, E. G., Hedeker, D., Peterson, J. L., & Davis, J. M. (1997). The altman self-rating mania scale. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 948–955. PubMedCrossRef Altman, E. G., Hedeker, D., Peterson, J. L., & Davis, J. M. (1997). The altman self-rating mania scale. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 948–955. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Altman, E., Hedeker, D., Peterson, J. L., & Davis, J. M. (2001). A comparison of three self-rating scales for acute mania. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 468–471. PubMedCrossRef Altman, E., Hedeker, D., Peterson, J. L., & Davis, J. M. (2001). A comparison of three self-rating scales for acute mania. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 468–471. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Arnow, B. A., Spangler, D., Klein, D., & Burns, D. D. (2004). Rumination and distraction among chronic depressives in treatment: A structural equation analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(1), 67–83. CrossRef Arnow, B. A., Spangler, D., Klein, D., & Burns, D. D. (2004). Rumination and distraction among chronic depressives in treatment: A structural equation analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(1), 67–83. CrossRef
go back to reference Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (2001). Relation of rumination and distraction with neuroticism and extraversion in a sample of patients with major depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 91–102. CrossRef Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (2001). Relation of rumination and distraction with neuroticism and extraversion in a sample of patients with major depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 91–102. CrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., & Beck, R. W. (1972). Screening depressed patients in a family practice: A rapid technique. Postgraduate Medicine, 52, 81–85. PubMed Beck, A. T., & Beck, R. W. (1972). Screening depressed patients in a family practice: A rapid technique. Postgraduate Medicine, 52, 81–85. PubMed
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100. CrossRef Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck depression inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100. CrossRef
go back to reference Bentler, P. M. (1988). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246. CrossRef Bentler, P. M. (1988). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246. CrossRef
go back to reference Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. Oxford, England: Wiley. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. Oxford, England: Wiley.
go back to reference Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 115–160). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1991). Measures of self-esteem. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 115–160). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
go back to reference Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring beliefs inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175–196. CrossRef Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring beliefs inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175–196. CrossRef
go back to reference Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283. PubMedCrossRef Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cronbach, L., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302. PubMedCrossRef Cronbach, L., & Meehl, P. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103–116. CrossRef Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103–116. CrossRef
go back to reference Corwyn, R. F. (2000). The factor structure of global self-esteem among adolescents and adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 357–379. CrossRef Corwyn, R. F. (2000). The factor structure of global self-esteem among adolescents and adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 357–379. CrossRef
go back to reference Eckblad, M., & Chapman, L. J. (1986). Development and validation of a scale for hypomanic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 214–222. PubMedCrossRef Eckblad, M., & Chapman, L. J. (1986). Development and validation of a scale for hypomanic personality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 214–222. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299. CrossRef Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299. CrossRef
go back to reference Fresco, D. M., Frankel, A. N., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., & Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: The relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 179–188. CrossRef Fresco, D. M., Frankel, A. N., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., & Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: The relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 179–188. CrossRef
go back to reference Gross, J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299. CrossRef Gross, J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299. CrossRef
go back to reference Gross, J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. PubMedCrossRef Gross, J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hayes, A. M., & Feldman, G. C. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 255–262. CrossRef Hayes, A. M., & Feldman, G. C. (2004). Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 255–262. CrossRef
go back to reference Henriques, J. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2000). Decreased responsiveness to reward in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 711–724. CrossRef Henriques, J. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2000). Decreased responsiveness to reward in depression. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 711–724. CrossRef
go back to reference Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. CrossRef Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. CrossRef
go back to reference Jacobson, N. S., Dobson, K. S, Truax, P. A., Addis, M. E., Koerner, K., Gollan, J. K., Gortner, E., & Prince, S. E. (1996). A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 295–304. PubMedCrossRef Jacobson, N. S., Dobson, K. S, Truax, P. A., Addis, M. E., Koerner, K., Gollan, J. K., Gortner, E., & Prince, S. E. (1996). A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 295–304. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, S. L. (2005). Mania and dysregulation in goal pursuit: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 241–262. PubMedCrossRef Johnson, S. L. (2005). Mania and dysregulation in goal pursuit: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 241–262. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, S. L., Ruggero, C., & Carver, C. (2005). Responses to reward among people vulnerable to mania. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 894–906. CrossRef Johnson, S. L., Ruggero, C., & Carver, C. (2005). Responses to reward among people vulnerable to mania. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 894–906. CrossRef
go back to reference Johnson, S. L., Sandrow, D., Meyer, B., Winters, R., Miller, I., Solomon, D., & Keitner, G. (2000). Increases in manic symptoms after life events involving goal attainment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 721–727. PubMedCrossRef Johnson, S. L., Sandrow, D., Meyer, B., Winters, R., Miller, I., Solomon, D., & Keitner, G. (2000). Increases in manic symptoms after life events involving goal attainment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 721–727. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Joormann, J., & Siemer, M. (2004). Memory accessibility, mood regulation, and dysphoria: Difficulties in repairing sad mood with happy memories? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 179–188. PubMedCrossRef Joormann, J., & Siemer, M. (2004). Memory accessibility, mood regulation, and dysphoria: Difficulties in repairing sad mood with happy memories? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 179–188. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8.51 for windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International Inc. Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (2001). LISREL 8.51 for windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International Inc.
go back to reference Just, N., & Alloy, L. B. (1997). The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 221–229. PubMedCrossRef Just, N., & Alloy, L. B. (1997). The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 221–229. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kasch, K. L., Klein, D. N., & Lara, M. E. (2001). A construct validation study of the response styles questionnaire rumination scale in participants with a recent-onset major depressive episode. Psychological Assessment, 13, 375–383. PubMedCrossRef Kasch, K. L., Klein, D. N., & Lara, M. E. (2001). A construct validation study of the response styles questionnaire rumination scale in participants with a recent-onset major depressive episode. Psychological Assessment, 13, 375–383. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kline, R. B. (1998) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford. Kline, R. B. (1998) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Knowles, R., Tai, S., Christensen, I., & Bental, R. (2005). Coping with depression and vulnerability to mania: A factor analytic study of the Nolen-Hoeksema (1991) response style questionnaire. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 99–112. PubMedCrossRef Knowles, R., Tai, S., Christensen, I., & Bental, R. (2005). Coping with depression and vulnerability to mania: A factor analytic study of the Nolen-Hoeksema (1991) response style questionnaire. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 99–112. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kuehner, C., & Weber, I. (1999). Responses to depression in unipolar depressed patients: An investigation of Nolen-Hoeksema’s response styles theory. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1323–1333. PubMedCrossRef Kuehner, C., & Weber, I. (1999). Responses to depression in unipolar depressed patients: An investigation of Nolen-Hoeksema’s response styles theory. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1323–1333. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kwapil, T. R., Miller, M. B., Zinser, M. C., Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J., & Eckblad, M. (2000). A longitudinal study of high scorers on the hypomanic personality scale. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 222–226. PubMedCrossRef Kwapil, T. R., Miller, M. B., Zinser, M. C., Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J., & Eckblad, M. (2000). A longitudinal study of high scorers on the hypomanic personality scale. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 222–226. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lam, D., & Wong, G. (1997). Prodromes, coping strategies, insight and social functioning in bipolar affective disorders. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1091–1100. PubMedCrossRef Lam, D., & Wong, G. (1997). Prodromes, coping strategies, insight and social functioning in bipolar affective disorders. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1091–1100. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Larsen, R. J. (2000). Toward a science of mood regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 129–141. CrossRef Larsen, R. J. (2000). Toward a science of mood regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 129–141. CrossRef
go back to reference Larsen, R. J., & Prizmic, Z. (2004). Affect regulation. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 40–61). New York: Guilford. Larsen, R. J., & Prizmic, Z. (2004). Affect regulation. In K. D. Vohs, & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 40–61). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Lewinsohn, P. M., Antonuccio, D. O., Steinmetz, J. L., & Teri, L. (1984). The coping with depression course: A psychoeducational intervention for unipolar depression. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing. Lewinsohn, P. M., Antonuccio, D. O., Steinmetz, J. L., & Teri, L. (1984). The coping with depression course: A psychoeducational intervention for unipolar depression. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing.
go back to reference Lozano, B., & Johnson, S. L. (2001). Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms? Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 103–111. PubMedCrossRef Lozano, B., & Johnson, S. L. (2001). Can personality traits predict increases in manic and depressive symptoms? Journal of Affective Disorders, 63, 103–111. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Martin, L. T., & Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In R. S. Wyer Jr. (Ed.), Ruminative thoughts (pp. 1–47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Martin, L. T., & Tesser, A. (1996). Some ruminative thoughts. In R. S. Wyer Jr. (Ed.), Ruminative thoughts (pp. 1–47). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
go back to reference Meyer, B., Beevers, C. G., & Johnson, S. L. (2004). Goal appraisals and vulnerability to bipolar disorder: A personal projects analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 173–182. CrossRef Meyer, B., Beevers, C. G., & Johnson, S. L. (2004). Goal appraisals and vulnerability to bipolar disorder: A personal projects analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 173–182. CrossRef
go back to reference Min’er, H., & Dejun, G. (2001). Emotion regulation and depression of college students. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 15, 438–441. Min’er, H., & Dejun, G. (2001). Emotion regulation and depression of college students. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 15, 438–441.
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Davis, C. G. (2004). Theoretical and methodological issues in the assessment and interpretation of posttraumatic growth. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 60–64. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Davis, C. G. (2004). Theoretical and methodological issues in the assessment and interpretation of posttraumatic growth. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 60–64.
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 loma prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 loma prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 20–28. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Morrow, J., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1993). Response styles and the duration of episodes of depressed mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 20–28. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
go back to reference Parrott, G. W. (1993). Beyond hedonism: Motives for inhibiting good moods and for maintaining bad moods. In D. M. Wegner, & J. W. Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 278–305). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Parrott, G. W. (1993). Beyond hedonism: Motives for inhibiting good moods and for maintaining bad moods. In D. M. Wegner, & J. W. Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 278–305). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Roberts, J. E., Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1998). Ruminative response style and vulnerability to episodes of dysphoria: Gender, neuroticism, and episode duration. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(4), 401–423. CrossRef Roberts, J. E., Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (1998). Ruminative response style and vulnerability to episodes of dysphoria: Gender, neuroticism, and episode duration. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(4), 401–423. CrossRef
go back to reference Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
go back to reference Rottenberg, J., Kasch, K. L., Gross, J. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2002). Sadness and amusement reactivity differentially predict concurrent and prospective functioning in major depressive disorder. Emotion, 2, 135–146. PubMedCrossRef Rottenberg, J., Kasch, K. L., Gross, J. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2002). Sadness and amusement reactivity differentially predict concurrent and prospective functioning in major depressive disorder. Emotion, 2, 135–146. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Segerstrom, S. C., Stanton, A. L., Alden, L. E., & Shortridge, B. E. (2003). A multidimensional structure for repetitive thought: What’s on your mind, and how, and how much? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(5), 909–921. PubMedCrossRef Segerstrom, S. C., Stanton, A. L., Alden, L. E., & Shortridge, B. E. (2003). A multidimensional structure for repetitive thought: What’s on your mind, and how, and how much? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(5), 909–921. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Segerstrom, S. C., Tsao, J. C., Alden, L. E., & Craske, M. G. (2000). Worry and rumination: Repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 671–688. CrossRef Segerstrom, S. C., Tsao, J. C., Alden, L. E., & Craske, M. G. (2000). Worry and rumination: Repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(6), 671–688. CrossRef
go back to reference Sloan, D. M., Bradley, M. M., Dimoulas, E., & Lang, P. J. (2002). Looking at facial expressions: Dysphoria and facial EMG. Biological-Psychology, 60, 79–90. PubMedCrossRef Sloan, D. M., Bradley, M. M., Dimoulas, E., & Lang, P. J. (2002). Looking at facial expressions: Dysphoria and facial EMG. Biological-Psychology, 60, 79–90. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Stanton, A. L., Kirk, S. B., Cameron, C. L., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2000). Coping through emotional approach: Scale construction and validation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1150–1169. PubMedCrossRef Stanton, A. L., Kirk, S. B., Cameron, C. L., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2000). Coping through emotional approach: Scale construction and validation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1150–1169. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sutton, S. K., & Johnson, S. L. (2002). Hypomanic tendencies predict lower startle magnitudes during pleasant pictures. Psychophysiology, 39(Suppl. 1), S80. CrossRef Sutton, S. K., & Johnson, S. L. (2002). Hypomanic tendencies predict lower startle magnitudes during pleasant pictures. Psychophysiology, 39(Suppl. 1), S80. CrossRef
go back to reference Swann, W. B., & Schroeder, D. G. (1995). The search for beauty and truth: A framework for understanding reactions to evaluations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1307–1318. CrossRef Swann, W. B., & Schroeder, D. G. (1995). The search for beauty and truth: A framework for understanding reactions to evaluations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1307–1318. CrossRef
go back to reference Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Pearson. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Pearson.
go back to reference Teasdale, J. D. (1988) Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 247–274. CrossRef Teasdale, J. D. (1988) Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 247–274. CrossRef
go back to reference Trapnell P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284–304. PubMedCrossRef Trapnell P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284–304. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. CrossRef Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. CrossRef
go back to reference Wells, A., & Davies, M. I. (1994). The thought control questionnaire: A measure of individual differences in the control of unwanted thoughts. Behavior Research and Therapy, 32, 871–878. CrossRef Wells, A., & Davies, M. I. (1994). The thought control questionnaire: A measure of individual differences in the control of unwanted thoughts. Behavior Research and Therapy, 32, 871–878. CrossRef
go back to reference Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 566–580. PubMedCrossRef Wood, J. V., Heimpel, S. A., & Michela, J. L. (2003). Savoring versus dampening: Self-esteem differences in regulating positive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 566–580. PubMedCrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Responses to Positive Affect: A Self-Report Measure of Rumination and Dampening
Auteurs
Greg C. Feldman
Jutta Joormann
Sheri L. Johnson
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2008
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 4/2008
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9083-0