Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2012

01-08-2012 | Original Article

Responding to Anxiety with Rumination and Hopelessness: Mechanism of Anxiety-Depression Symptom Co-Occurrence?

Auteurs: Lisa R. Starr, Joanne Davila

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 4/2012

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings were replicated controlling for conceptually related variables, and anxiety interacted with anxiety response styles to predict greater depressive symptoms. In Study 3, anxiety response styles moderated the prospective association between anxiety and later depression in a generalized anxiety disorder sample. Results support a role for anxiety response styles in anxiety-depression co-occurrence, and show that hopeless/ruminative anxiety response styles can be measured with high reliability and convergent and divergent validity.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Although the RAQ items were designed to assess tendency to respond to anxiety with hopeless cognitions, a reasonable concern is whether the RAQ actually assesses current feelings of hopelessness, which could artificially inflate associations with depression. To explore this issue, we constructed an alternate version of the RAQ, purging items that could potentially tap hopelessness (#22, 23, 24, 26). This version was very highly correlated with the original RAQ (r = .99). We re-ran all analyses using this version, and all results were identical in significance and near identical in magnitude.
 
2
Most RAQ items referred to general symptoms of anxiety, rather than symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. Items #12, 13, 14, 17, and 18 arguably apply to symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, and to ensure that their inclusion did not bias results, we recomputed the scale excluding these items. The modified scale was correlated with the original scale at r = .996 and generated identical results.
 
3
The MASQ was also administered, but results are omitted here because of space limitations. MASQ results were mostly identical, with a few important exceptions. Anxious arousal was no longer associated with the RAQ when controlling for the ASI (pr = .09, P > .05), perhaps explained by the significant content overlap between the ASI and anxious arousal scales. As a result, the RAQ could not account for the association between anxious arousal and anhedonic depression when controlling for the ASI. In addition, moderation results were not replicated using the MASQ subscales.
 
4
Significance levels were not subject to statistical corrections because all analyses were planned a priori. For results where p levels approach .05, please interpret with caution.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358–372. CrossRef Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358–372. CrossRef
go back to reference Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., Rose, D. T., Robinson, M. S., et al. (2000). The Temple-Wisconsin cognitive vulnerability to depression project: Lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 403–418. PubMedCrossRef Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., Rose, D. T., Robinson, M. S., et al. (2000). The Temple-Wisconsin cognitive vulnerability to depression project: Lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 403–418. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Whitehouse, W. G., Hogan, M. E., Panzarella, C., & Rose, D. T. (2006). Prospective incidence of first onsets and recurrences of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), 145–156. PubMedCrossRef Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Whitehouse, W. G., Hogan, M. E., Panzarella, C., & Rose, D. T. (2006). Prospective incidence of first onsets and recurrences of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(1), 145–156. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Alloy, L. B., Kelly, K. A., Mineka, S., & Clements, C. M. (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders: A helplessness-hopelessness perspective. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press. Alloy, L. B., Kelly, K. A., Mineka, S., & Clements, C. M. (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders: A helplessness-hopelessness perspective. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Anderson, E., & Hope, D. A. (2008). A review of the tripartite model for understanding the link between anxiety and depression in youth. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(2), 275–287. PubMedCrossRef Anderson, E., & Hope, D. A. (2008). A review of the tripartite model for understanding the link between anxiety and depression in youth. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(2), 275–287. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176–181. CrossRef Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176–181. CrossRef
go back to reference Barlow, D. H. (1991). The nature of anxiety: Anxiety, depression, and emotional disorders. In D. H. Barlow & R. M. Rapee (Eds.), Chronic anxiety: Generalized anxiety disorder and mixed anxiety-depression (pp. 1–28). New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press. Barlow, D. H. (1991). The nature of anxiety: Anxiety, depression, and emotional disorders. In D. H. Barlow & R. M. Rapee (Eds.), Chronic anxiety: Generalized anxiety disorder and mixed anxiety-depression (pp. 1–28). New York, NY, USA: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
go back to reference Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. PubMedCrossRef Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861–865. PubMedCrossRef Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The hopelessness scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861–865. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Borkovec, T. D., Ray, W. J., & Staber, J. (1998). Worry: A cognitive phenomenon intimately linked to affective, physiological, and interpersonal behavioral processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(6), 561–576. CrossRef Borkovec, T. D., Ray, W. J., & Staber, J. (1998). Worry: A cognitive phenomenon intimately linked to affective, physiological, and interpersonal behavioral processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(6), 561–576. CrossRef
go back to reference Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1992). Comorbidity among anxiety disorders: Implications for treatment and DSM-IV. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 835–844. PubMedCrossRef Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1992). Comorbidity among anxiety disorders: Implications for treatment and DSM-IV. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 835–844. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression. New York: Free Press. Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression. New York: Free Press.
go back to reference Burns, D. D., & Eidelson, R. J. (1998). Why are depression and anxiety correlated? A test of the tripartite model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 461–473. PubMedCrossRef Burns, D. D., & Eidelson, R. J. (1998). Why are depression and anxiety correlated? A test of the tripartite model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 461–473. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Butler, L. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1994). Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample. Sex Roles, 30(5), 331–346. CrossRef Butler, L. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1994). Gender differences in responses to depressed mood in a college sample. Sex Roles, 30(5), 331–346. CrossRef
go back to reference Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2002). Tripartite dimensions of emotion in a child clinical sample: Measurement strategies and implications for clinical utility. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1150–1160. PubMedCrossRef Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2002). Tripartite dimensions of emotion in a child clinical sample: Measurement strategies and implications for clinical utility. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(5), 1150–1160. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316–336. PubMedCrossRef Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316–336. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cole, D. A., Peeke, L. G., Martin, J. M., Truglio, R., & Seroczynski, A. D. (1998). A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 451–460. PubMedCrossRef Cole, D. A., Peeke, L. G., Martin, J. M., Truglio, R., & Seroczynski, A. D. (1998). A longitudinal look at the relation between depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(3), 451–460. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9.
go back to reference Coyne, J. C. (1994). Self-reported distress: Analog or ersatz depression? Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 29–45. PubMedCrossRef Coyne, J. C. (1994). Self-reported distress: Analog or ersatz depression? Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 29–45. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference de Graaf, R., Bijl, R. V., Spijker, J., Beekman, A. T. F., & Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2003). Temporal sequencing of lifetime mood disorders in relation to comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders: Findings from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(1), 1–11. PubMedCrossRef de Graaf, R., Bijl, R. V., Spijker, J., Beekman, A. T. F., & Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2003). Temporal sequencing of lifetime mood disorders in relation to comorbid anxiety and substance use disorders: Findings from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(1), 1–11. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Essau, C. A. (2003). Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 18(1), 1–6. PubMedCrossRef Essau, C. A. (2003). Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Depression and Anxiety, 18(1), 1–6. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Fabrigar, L., Wegener, D., MacCallum, R., & Strahan, E. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272–299. CrossRef Fabrigar, L., Wegener, D., MacCallum, R., & Strahan, E. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4, 272–299. CrossRef
go back to reference Grant, D. M., Beck, J. G., Farrow, S. M., & Davila, J. (2007). Do interpersonal features of social anxiety influence the development of depressive symptoms? Cognition and Emotion, 21, 646–663. CrossRef Grant, D. M., Beck, J. G., Farrow, S. M., & Davila, J. (2007). Do interpersonal features of social anxiety influence the development of depressive symptoms? Cognition and Emotion, 21, 646–663. CrossRef
go back to reference Hankin, B. L. (2008). Rumination and depression in adolescence: Investigating symptom specificity in a multiwave prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(4), 701–713. CrossRef Hankin, B. L. (2008). Rumination and depression in adolescence: Investigating symptom specificity in a multiwave prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(4), 701–713. CrossRef
go back to reference Horowitz, M. J., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41(3), 209–218. PubMed Horowitz, M. J., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41(3), 209–218. PubMed
go back to reference Jacques, H. A. K., & Mash, E. J. (2004). A test of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in elementary and high school boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(1), 13–25. PubMedCrossRef Jacques, H. A. K., & Mash, E. J. (2004). A test of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in elementary and high school boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32(1), 13–25. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Joiner, T. E., Jr. (1996). A confirmatory factor-analytic investigation of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in college students. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20(5), 521–539. CrossRef Joiner, T. E., Jr. (1996). A confirmatory factor-analytic investigation of the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in college students. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20(5), 521–539. CrossRef
go back to reference Joiner, T. E., Jr, Wingate, L. R., & Otamendi, A. (2005). An interpersonal addendum to the hopelessness theory of depression: Hopelessness as a stress and depression generator. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 24(5), 649–664. CrossRef Joiner, T. E., Jr, Wingate, L. R., & Otamendi, A. (2005). An interpersonal addendum to the hopelessness theory of depression: Hopelessness as a stress and depression generator. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 24(5), 649–664. CrossRef
go back to reference Just, N., & Alloy, L. B. (1997). The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(2), 221–229. PubMedCrossRef Just, N., & Alloy, L. B. (1997). The response styles theory of depression: Tests and an extension of the theory. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(2), 221–229. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kessler, R. C., Stang, P., Wittchen, H. U., Stein, M., & Walters, E. E. (1999). Lifetime comorbidities between social phobia and mood disorders in the US national comorbidity survey. Psychological Medicine, 29(3), 555–567. PubMedCrossRef Kessler, R. C., Stang, P., Wittchen, H. U., Stein, M., & Walters, E. E. (1999). Lifetime comorbidities between social phobia and mood disorders in the US national comorbidity survey. Psychological Medicine, 29(3), 555–567. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lang, P. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Shlien (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy (Vol. 3, pp. 90–102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Lang, P. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Shlien (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy (Vol. 3, pp. 90–102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
go back to reference Ledley, D. R., Huppert, J. D., Foa, E. B., Davidson, J. R. T., Keefe, F. J., & Potts, N. L. S. (2005). Impact of depressive symptoms on the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 22(4), 161–167. PubMedCrossRef Ledley, D. R., Huppert, J. D., Foa, E. B., Davidson, J. R. T., Keefe, F. J., & Potts, N. L. S. (2005). Impact of depressive symptoms on the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 22(4), 161–167. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Adolescent psychopathology: III. The clinical consequences of comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(4), 510–519. CrossRef Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Adolescent psychopathology: III. The clinical consequences of comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(4), 510–519. CrossRef
go back to reference Lewinsohn, P. M., Zinbarg, R., Seeley, J. R., Lewinsohn, M., & Sack, W. H. (1997). Lifetime comorbidity among anxiety disorders and between anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(4), 377–394. PubMedCrossRef Lewinsohn, P. M., Zinbarg, R., Seeley, J. R., Lewinsohn, M., & Sack, W. H. (1997). Lifetime comorbidity among anxiety disorders and between anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(4), 377–394. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Leyro, T. M., Zvolensky, M. J., & Bernstein, A. (2010). Distress tolerance and psychopathological symptoms and disorders: A review of the empirical literature among adults. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 576–600. doi: 10.​1037/​a0019712. PubMedCrossRef Leyro, T. M., Zvolensky, M. J., & Bernstein, A. (2010). Distress tolerance and psychopathological symptoms and disorders: A review of the empirical literature among adults. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 576–600. doi: 10.​1037/​a0019712. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S., Caldwell, N. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 166–177. PubMedCrossRef Lyubomirsky, S., Caldwell, N. D., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). Effects of ruminative and distracting responses to depressed mood on retrieval of autobiographical memories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 166–177. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1993). Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 339–349. PubMedCrossRef Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1993). Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 339–349. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1995). Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(1), 176–190. PubMedCrossRef Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1995). Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(1), 176–190. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1041–1060. PubMedCrossRef Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1041–1060. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Maser, J. D., & Cloninger, C. R. (1990). Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. Maser, J. D., & Cloninger, C. R. (1990). Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference McLaughlin, K. A., Borkovec, T. D., & Sibrava, N. J. (2007). The effects of worry and rumination on affect states and cognitive activity. Behavior Therapy, 38(1), 23–38. PubMedCrossRef McLaughlin, K. A., Borkovec, T. D., & Sibrava, N. J. (2007). The effects of worry and rumination on affect states and cognitive activity. Behavior Therapy, 38(1), 23–38. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Meng, X.-L., Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. (1992). Comparing correlated correlation coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 111(1), 172–175. CrossRef Meng, X.-L., Rosenthal, R., & Rubin, D. B. (1992). Comparing correlated correlation coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 111(1), 172–175. CrossRef
go back to reference Merikangas, K. R. (1990). Comorbidity for anxiety and depression: Review of family and genetic studies. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. (pp. 331–348). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Merikangas, K. R. (1990). Comorbidity for anxiety and depression: Review of family and genetic studies. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. (pp. 331–348). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Metalsky, G. I., Joiner, T. E., Hardin, T. S., & Abramson, L. Y. (1993). Depressive reactions to failure in a naturalistic setting: A test of the hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 101–109. PubMedCrossRef Metalsky, G. I., Joiner, T. E., Hardin, T. S., & Abramson, L. Y. (1993). Depressive reactions to failure in a naturalistic setting: A test of the hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 101–109. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495. CrossRef Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behavior Research and Therapy, 28, 487–495. CrossRef
go back to reference Mineka, S., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 377–412. PubMedCrossRef Mineka, S., Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1998). Comorbidity of anxiety and unipolar mood disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 377–412. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Caspi, A., Kim-Cohen, J., Goldberg, D., Gregory, A. M., et al. (2007). Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: Cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(6), 651–660. doi: 10.​1001/​archpsyc.​64.​6.​651. PubMedCrossRef Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Caspi, A., Kim-Cohen, J., Goldberg, D., Gregory, A. M., et al. (2007). Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: Cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(6), 651–660. doi: 10.​1001/​archpsyc.​64.​6.​651. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Muris, P., Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., & Boomsma, P. (2004). Rumination and worry in nonclinical adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 539–554. CrossRef Muris, P., Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., & Boomsma, P. (2004). Rumination and worry in nonclinical adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 539–554. CrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115–121. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115–121. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(1), 92–104. PubMedCrossRef Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., & Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(1), 92–104. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ollendick, T. H., Seligman, L. D., Goza, A. B., Byrd, D. A., & Singh, K. (2003). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: A factor-analytic examination of the tripartite model. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12(2), 157–170. CrossRef Ollendick, T. H., Seligman, L. D., Goza, A. B., Byrd, D. A., & Singh, K. (2003). Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: A factor-analytic examination of the tripartite model. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12(2), 157–170. CrossRef
go back to reference Peterson, C. (1991). The meaning and measurement of explanatory style. Psychological Inquiry, 2(1), 1–10. CrossRef Peterson, C. (1991). The meaning and measurement of explanatory style. Psychological Inquiry, 2(1), 1–10. CrossRef
go back to reference Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The attributional style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6(3), 287–299. CrossRef Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The attributional style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6(3), 287–299. CrossRef
go back to reference Rector, N. A., Antony, M. M., Laposa, J. M., Kocovski, N. L., & Swinson, R. P. (2008). Assessing content domains of repetitive thought in the anxiety spectrum: Rumination and worry in nonclinical and clinically anxious samples. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(4), 352–377. doi: 10.​1521/​ijct.​2008.​1.​4.​352. CrossRef Rector, N. A., Antony, M. M., Laposa, J. M., Kocovski, N. L., & Swinson, R. P. (2008). Assessing content domains of repetitive thought in the anxiety spectrum: Rumination and worry in nonclinical and clinically anxious samples. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(4), 352–377. doi: 10.​1521/​ijct.​2008.​1.​4.​352. CrossRef
go back to reference Regier, D. A., Burke, J. D., & Burke, K. C. (1990). Comorbidity of affective and anxiety disorders in the NIMH epidemiologic catchment area program. In J. D. Maser & R. C. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders (pp. 113–122). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press. Regier, D. A., Burke, J. D., & Burke, K. C. (1990). Comorbidity of affective and anxiety disorders in the NIMH epidemiologic catchment area program. In J. D. Maser & R. C. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders (pp. 113–122). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.
go back to reference Reidy, J., & Keogh, E. (1997). Testing the discriminant and convergent validity of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire using a British sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(2), 337–344. CrossRef Reidy, J., & Keogh, E. (1997). Testing the discriminant and convergent validity of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire using a British sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(2), 337–344. CrossRef
go back to reference Rholes, W. S., Riskind, J. H., & Neville, B. (1985). The relationship of cognitions and hopelessness to depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3(1), 36–50. CrossRef Rholes, W. S., Riskind, J. H., & Neville, B. (1985). The relationship of cognitions and hopelessness to depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3(1), 36–50. CrossRef
go back to reference Sarin, S., Abela, J. R. Z., & Auerbach, R. P. (2005). The response styles theory of depression: A test of specificity and causal mediation. Cognition & Emotion, 19(5), 751–761. CrossRef Sarin, S., Abela, J. R. Z., & Auerbach, R. P. (2005). The response styles theory of depression: A test of specificity and causal mediation. Cognition & Emotion, 19(5), 751–761. CrossRef
go back to reference Sheehan, D. V., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(Suppl 20), 22–33; quiz 34–57. Sheehan, D. V., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(Suppl 20), 22–33; quiz 34–57.
go back to reference Siegle, G. J., Moore, P. M., & Thase, M. E. (2004). Rumination: One construct, many features in healthy individuals, depressed individuals, and individuals with lupus. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(5), 645–668. CrossRef Siegle, G. J., Moore, P. M., & Thase, M. E. (2004). Rumination: One construct, many features in healthy individuals, depressed individuals, and individuals with lupus. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(5), 645–668. CrossRef
go back to reference Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
go back to reference Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. (1995). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. (1995). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
go back to reference Starr, L. R. (2010). Mechanisms of Depression-Anxiety Co-occurrence. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY. Starr, L. R. (2010). Mechanisms of Depression-Anxiety Co-occurrence. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY.
go back to reference Starr, L. R., & Davila, J. (2008). Differentiating interpersonal correlates of depressive symptoms and social anxiety in adolescence: Implications for models of comorbidity. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 337–349. PubMedCrossRef Starr, L. R., & Davila, J. (2008). Differentiating interpersonal correlates of depressive symptoms and social anxiety in adolescence: Implications for models of comorbidity. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 337–349. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, S., Zvolensky, M. J., Cox, B. J., Deacon, B., Heimberg, R. G., Ledley, D. R., et al. (2007). Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Development and initial validation of the anxiety sensitivity index-3. Psychological Assessment, 19(2), 176–188. PubMedCrossRef Taylor, S., Zvolensky, M. J., Cox, B. J., Deacon, B., Heimberg, R. G., Ledley, D. R., et al. (2007). Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Development and initial validation of the anxiety sensitivity index-3. Psychological Assessment, 19(2), 176–188. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Tellegen, A., Tuma, A. H., & Maser, J. D. (1985). Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 681–706). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Tellegen, A., Tuma, A. H., & Maser, J. D. (1985). Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self-report anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 681–706). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
go back to reference Velting, D. M. (1999). Personality and negative expectations: Trait structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(5), 913–921. CrossRef Velting, D. M. (1999). Personality and negative expectations: Trait structure of the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(5), 913–921. CrossRef
go back to reference Vredenburg, K., Flett, G. L., & Krames, L. (1993). Analogue versus clinical depression: A critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 113(2), 327–344. PubMedCrossRef Vredenburg, K., Flett, G. L., & Krames, L. (1993). Analogue versus clinical depression: A critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 113(2), 327–344. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Watkins, E., Moulds, M., & Mackintosh, B. (2005). Comparisons between rumination and worry in a non-clinical population. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(12), 1577–1585. PubMedCrossRef Watkins, E., Moulds, M., & Mackintosh, B. (2005). Comparisons between rumination and worry in a non-clinical population. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(12), 1577–1585. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995a). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 15–25. PubMedCrossRef Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995a). Testing a tripartite model: II. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 15–25. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995b). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 3–14. PubMedCrossRef Watson, D., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Clark, L. A., Strauss, M. E., & McCormick, R. A. (1995b). Testing a tripartite model: I. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(1), 3–14. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wittchen, H.-U., Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., & Goodwin, R. D. (2003). Depressive episodes—Evidence for a causal role of primary anxiety disorders? European Psychiatry, 18(8), 384–393. PubMedCrossRef Wittchen, H.-U., Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., & Goodwin, R. D. (2003). Depressive episodes—Evidence for a causal role of primary anxiety disorders? European Psychiatry, 18(8), 384–393. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wittchen, H.-U., Kessler, R. C., Pfister, H., & Lieb, M. (2000). Why do people with anxiety disorders become depressed? A prospective-longitudinal community study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 14–23. CrossRef Wittchen, H.-U., Kessler, R. C., Pfister, H., & Lieb, M. (2000). Why do people with anxiety disorders become depressed? A prospective-longitudinal community study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 14–23. CrossRef
go back to reference Young, J. F., Mufson, L., & Davies, M. (2006). Impact of comorbid anxiety in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(8), 904–912. CrossRef Young, J. F., Mufson, L., & Davies, M. (2006). Impact of comorbid anxiety in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(8), 904–912. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Responding to Anxiety with Rumination and Hopelessness: Mechanism of Anxiety-Depression Symptom Co-Occurrence?
Auteurs
Lisa R. Starr
Joanne Davila
Publicatiedatum
01-08-2012
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 4/2012
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9363-1

Andere artikelen Uitgave 4/2012

Cognitive Therapy and Research 4/2012 Naar de uitgave