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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 6/2006

01-12-2006 | Original Paper

Resilient Adolescent Adjustment Among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Auteurs: Amori Yee Mikami, Stephen P. Hinshaw

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 6/2006

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Abstract

Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6–13 at baseline and 11–18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood measures of self-perceived scholastic competence, engagement in goal-directed play when alone, and popularity with adults. Adolescent criterion measures were multi-informant composites of externalizing and internalizing behavior plus indicators of academic achievement, eating pathology, and substance use. ADHD and peer rejection predicted risk for all criterion measures except for substance use, which was predicted by ADHD only. ADHD and peer rejection predicted lower adolescent academic achievement controlling for childhood achievement, but they did not predict adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior after controlling for baseline levels of these constructs. Regarding buffers, self-perceived scholastic competence in childhood (with control of academic achievement) predicted resilient adolescent functioning. Contrary to hypothesis, goal-directed play in childhood was associated with poor adolescent outcomes. Buffers were not found to have differential effectiveness among girls with ADHD relative to comparison girls.
Voetnoten
1
Reviewers suggested that the test of goal-directed play as a protective factor should be operationalized by first controlling for the total amount of solitary time, and then placing the proportion of goal-directed play on the next step in the regression. Analyses were conducted with this method and the effects for goal-directed play remained unchanged. Thus, we have retained the current conception of goal-directed play, to maintain consistency with Mikami and Hinshaw (2003).
 
2
Because scores of problem behavior are z-scored composites, they do not provide a sense of absolute severity. Yet girls with ADHD fell in the clinically significant range on problem behaviors. Mother and Teacher average T-scores for aggressive and delinquent subscales on the CBCL/TRF ranged from 62–67 for the ADHD sample, relative to 52–53 for the comparison sample. Mother and Teacher average T-scores for anxious/depressed subscales on the CBCL/TRF ranged from 61–62 for the ADHD sample, relative to 53 for the comparison sample.
 
3
When ADHD was placed on step 1 and peer rejection on step 2 in these analyses, instead of the reverse, results were unchanged for 6 of 8 outcomes (with and without statistical control of baseline adjustment). For substance abuse, ADHD diagnosis became marginally significant and peer rejection was negatively associated with substance use; as the correlation between rejection and substance use is close to zero, this negative relationship suggests that rejection has a suppressor effect when combined with ADHD. For academic achievement, after controlling for baseline achievement, ADHD diagnosis remained significant but the peer rejection effect was reduced.
 
4
We conducted parallel analyses in which ethnicity, SES, age, and IQ were each considered as predictors before peer rejection and ADHD. We note that girls with ADHD and comparison girls were not significantly different at baseline regarding ethnicity, SES, and age; however, we examined their effects because of the wide range on these variables. We found no main effects for age or for ethnicity, and few effects for SES with two exceptions—SES was negatively correlated with adolescent externalizing symptoms and positively correlated with academic achievement, but only without control of baseline levels of these constructs. The pattern of results was largely unchanged with the addition of these variables. Regarding IQ, not surprisingly, girls with ADHD displayed significantly lower IQs than did comparison girls (see Hinshaw, 2002). When included as a predictor prior to peer rejection and ADHD, IQ was significantly and negatively correlated with all of the measures of adolescent problem behaviors and positively correlated with adolescent academic achievement. However, the pattern of results for the risk factors and buffers remained largely unchanged. Notably, even after controlling for the effects of IQ and baseline academic achievement the factors of peer rejection and ADHD remained significant in predicting adolescent achievement, and perceived scholastic competence remained marginally significant. Finally, we conducted parallel analyses in which ADHD subgroup (Combined Type, Inattentive Type, comparison) was substituted for ADHD diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison). The pattern of results was unchanged, so we report results for ADHD vs. comparison diagnostic status herein.
 
5
The potential buffering effects of all other Harter subscales were tested, and these results pertain uniquely to self-perceived scholastic competence.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Resilient Adolescent Adjustment Among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Auteurs
Amori Yee Mikami
Stephen P. Hinshaw
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2006
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 6/2006
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9062-7

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